The syllabus gives the topics that will be asked in the **AP PGECET 2021 Exam**. There are **14 topics **in the as per the framing of the syllabus. Knowledge about the entire syllabus and the marking pattern which is prescribed in the **AP PGECET 2021 Exam Pattern** will help the candidates to prepare well and score in the exam.

As of now, there are no updates regarding the syllabus. According to the syllabus the question paper will be set, to help the students to know about the types of questions asked, the conducting authority will release official AP PGECET Mock tests.

Topics related to some of the important disciplines are provided below for the benefit of students.

- Aerospace Engineering
- Biotechnology
- Chemical Engineering
- Geo-Engineering & Geo-Informatics
- Instrumentation Engineering
- Mechanical Engineering

## Aerospace Engineering

The syllabus is as follows: -

**Engineering Mathematics**

** Linear Algebra:**

- Matrix algebra
- Systems of linear equations
- Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors
- Calculus: Functions of a single variable
- Limit, continuity and differentiability
- Mean value theorems
- Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, partial derivatives, total derivative, maxima and minima
- Partial derivatives
- Total derivative
- Maxima and minima
- Gradient
- Divergence and curl
- Vector identities

**Directional derivatives**

- Line
- Surface and volume integrals
- Theorems of Stokes
- Gauss and Green.

**Differential Calculus:**

- First-order linear and nonlinear equations
- Higher-order linear ODEs with constant coefficients
- Cauchy and Euler equations
- Initial and boundary value problems
- Laplace transforms
- Partial differential equations and separation of variables methods

**Numerical methods:**

- Numerical solution of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations
- Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson rule
- Single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

**Flight Mechanics**

**Atmosphere:**

- Properties
- Standard atmosphere
- Classification of aircraft
- Aeroplane (fixed-wing aircraft) configuration and various parts.

** Aeroplane performance:**

- Pressure altitude
- Equivalent, calibrated, indicated airspeeds
- Primary flight instruments
- Altimeter, ASI, VSI
- Turn-bank indicator
- Drag polar; take-off and landing;
- Steady climb & descent,-absolute and service ceiling
- Cruise, cruise climb
- Endurance or loiter
- Load factor, turning flight
- V-n diagram
- Winds: head, tail & crosswinds.

** Static stability:**

- Angle of attack
- Sideslip; roll
- Pitch & yaw controls++
- Longitudinal stick fixed & free stability
- Horizontal tail position and size
- Directional stability
- Vertical tail position and size
- Dihedral stability
- Wing dihedral, sweep & position; hinge moments, stick forces.

** Dynamic stability:**

- Euler angles
- Equations of motion
- Aerodynamic forces and moments, stability & control derivatives
- Decoupling of longitudinal and lat-directional dynamics
- Longitudinal modes
- Lateral-directional modes.

**Space Dynamics**

- Central force motion
- Determination of trajectory and orbital period in simple cases
- Orbit transfer, in-plane and out-of-plane
- Elements of rocket motor performance.

** Aerodynamics **

** Basic Fluid Mechanics:**

- Incompressible irrotational flow
- Helmholtz and Kelvin theorem
- Singularities and superposition
- Viscous flows, boundary layer on a flat plate.

**Airfoils and wings:**

- Classification of airfoils
- Aerodynamic characteristics
- High lift devices
- Kutta Joukowski theorem
- Lift generation
- Thin airfoil theory
- Wing theory
- Induced drag
- Qualitative treatment of low aspect ratio wings.

**Viscous Flows:**

- Flow separation
- Introduction to turbulence
- Transition, the structure of a turbulent boundary layer.

**Structures **

**Stress and Strain:**

- Equations of equilibrium
- Constitutive law
- Strain-displacement relationship,
- Compatibility equations
- Plane stress and strain
- Airy's stress function.

** Flight Vehicle Structures:**

- Characteristics of aircraft structures and materials
- Torsion, bending and flexural shear.
- Flexural shear flow in thin-walled sections
- Buckling
- Failure theories
- Loads on aircraft

** Structural Dynamics:**

- Free and forced vibration of discrete systems
- Damping and resonance
- Dynamics of continuous systems.

** Propulsion:**

- Thermodynamics of Aircraft
- Gas Turbine engines
- Thrust and thrust augmentation.

** Turbomachinery:**

- Axial compressors and turbines, centrifugal pumps and compressors.
- Aerothermodynamics of non-rotating propulsion components: Intakes, combustor and nozzle.
- Thermodynamics of ramjets and scramjets. Elements of rocket propulsion.

## Bio-Technology

**Engineering Mathematics**

**Linear Algebra:** Matrices and

- Matrices and determinants
- Systems of linear equations
- Eigenvalues and Eigen vectors.

** Calculus:**

- Limit, continuity and differentiability
- Partial derivatives
- Maxima and minima
- Sequences and series
- Test for convergence
- Fourier series.

**Differential Equations:**

- Linear and nonlinear first-order ODEs
- Higher-order ODEs with constant coefficients
- Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations
- Laplace transforms
- PDE- Laplace, heat and wave equations.

**Probability and Statistics:**

- Probability and Sampling Theorem
- Conditional Probability
- Mean, median, mode and standard deviation
- Random variables
- Poisson, normal and binomial distributions
- Correlation and regression analysis.

** Numerical Methods:**

- Solution of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations
- Integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule
- Single and multistep methods for differential equations.

**Biotechnology **

** Microbiology:**

- Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure
- Microbial nutrition, growth and control
- Microbial metabolism (aerobic and anaerobic respiration, photosynthesis)
- Nitrogen fixation; Chemical basis of mutations and mutagens
- Microbial genetics (plasmids, transformation, transduction, conjugation)
- Microbial diversity and characteristic features
- Viruses.

** Biochemistry:**

- Biomolecules and their conformation
- Weak inter-molecular interactions in biomacromolecules
- Chemical and functional nature of enzymes
- Kinetics of single substrate and bi-substrate enzyme-catalyzed reactions
- Bioenergetics
- Metabolism (Glycolysis, TCA and Oxidative phosphorylation)
- Membrane transport and pumps
- Cell cycle and cell growth control
- Cell signalling and signal transduction

** Molecular Biology and Genetics:**

- Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes
- DNA replication and control
- Transcription and its control
- Translational processes
- Regulatory controls in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
- Mendelian inheritance
- Gene interaction
- Complementation; Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping
- Extrachromosomal inheritance
- Chromosomal variation
- Population genetics
- Transposable elements
- Molecular basis of genetic diseases and applications.

** Process Biotechnology:**

- Bioprocess technology for the production of cell biomass and primary/secondary metabolites, such as baker’s yeast, ethanol, citric acid, amino acids, exopolysaccharides, antibiotics and pigments etc.
- Microbial production, purification and bioprocess application(s) of industrial enzyme
- Production and purification of recombinant proteins on a large scale
- Chromatographic and membrane-based bioseparation methods
- Immobilization of enzymes and cells and their application for bioconversion processes
- Aerobic and anaerobic biological processes for stabilization of solid/liquid wastes
- Bioremediation.

**Bioprocess Engineering:**

- Kinetics of microbial growth, substrate utilization and product formation
- Simple structured models
- Sterilization of air and media
- Batch, fed-batch and continuous processes
- Aeration and agitation
- Mass transfer in bioreactors
- Rheology of fermentation fluids
- Scale-up concepts
- Design of fermentation media;
- Various types of microbial and enzyme reactors
- Instrumentation in bioreactors.

**Plant and Animal Biotechnology:**

- Special features and organization of plant cells
- Totipotency
- Regeneration of plants
- Plant products of industrial importance
- Biochemistry of major metabolic pathways and products
- Autotrophic and heterotrophic growth
- Plant growth regulators and elicitors
- Cell suspension culture development: methodology, kinetics of growth and production formation, nutrient optimization
- Production of secondary metabolites by plant suspension cultures
- Hairy root cultures and their cultivation
- Techniques in raising transgenes.

**Characteristics of animal cells:**

- Metabolism, regulation and nutritional requirements for mass cultivation of animal cell cultures
- Kinetics of cell growth and product formation and effect of shear force
- Product and substrate transport
- Micro & macro-carrier culture
- Hybridoma technology
- Livestock improvement
- Cloning in animals
- Genetic engineering in animal cell culture
- Animal cell preservation.

** Immunology:**

- The origin of immunology
- Inherent immunity; Humoral and cell-mediated immunity
- Primary and secondary lymphoid organ
- Antigen
- B and T cells and Macrophages
- Major histocompatibility complex (MHC); Antigen processing and presentation
- Synthesis of antibody and secretion
- Molecular basis of antibody diversity
- Polyclonal and monoclonal antibody
- Complement
- Antigen-antibody reaction
- Regulation of immune response
- Immune tolerance
- Hypersensitivity
- Autoimmunity
- Graft versus host reaction.

**Recombinant DNA Technology:**

- Restriction and modification enzymes
- Vectors: plasmid, bacteriophage and other viral vectors, cosmids, Ti plasmid, yeast artificial chromosome
- cDNA and genomic DNA library
- Gene isolation
- Gene cloning
- Expression of cloned gene
- Transposons and gene targeting
- DNA labelling
- DNA sequencing
- Polymerase chain reactions
- DNA fingerprinting
- Southern and northern blotting
- In-situ hybridization
- RAPD, RFLP, Site-directed mutagenesis
- Gene transfer technologies
- Gene therapy.

** Bioinformatics:**

- Major Bioinformatics resources (NCBI, EBI, ExPASy)
- Sequence and structure databases
- Sequence analysis (biomolecular sequence file formats, scoring matrices, sequence alignment, phylogeny)
- Genomics and Proteomics (Large scale genome sequencing strategies
- Comparative genomics
- Understanding DNA microarrays and protein arrays)
- Molecular modelling and simulations (basic concepts including the concept of force fields).

## Chemical Engineering

**Engineering Mathematics**

** Linear Algebra:**

- Matrix algebra
- Systems of linear equations
- Eigen values and eigenvectors.

** Calculus:**

- Functions of single variable
- Limit, continuity and differentiability
- Mean value theorems
- Evaluation of definite and improper integrals
- Partial derivatives
- Total derivative
- Maxima and minima
- Gradient
- Divergence and Curl
- Vector densities
- Directional derivatives
- Line, Surface and Volume integrals
- Stokes, Gauss and Green's theorems.

** Differential equations:**

- First-order equations (linear and nonlinear)
- Higher-order linear differential equations with constant coefficients
- Cauchy's and Euler's equations
- Initial and boundary value problems
- Laplace transforms
- Solutions of one-dimensional heat and wave equations and Laplace equation.

** Complex variables:**

- Analytic functions
- Cauchy's integral theorem
- Taylor and Laurent series,
- Residue theorem

** Probability and Statistics:**

- Definitions of probability and sampling theorems
- Conditional probability
- Probability Density Function
- Mean, median, mode and standard deviation
- Random variables
- Exponential, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distributions.

** Numerical Methods:**

- Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson's rule
- Single and multi-step methods for differential equations

## Geo-Engineering & Geo-Informatics (GG)

**Engineering Mathematics**

** Linear Algebra:**

- Matrix algebra
- Systems of linear equations
- Eigen values and eigenvectors.

**Calculus:**

- Functions of single variable
- Limit, continuity and differentiability
- Mean value theorems
- Evaluation of definite and improper integrals
- Partial derivatives
- Total derivative
- Maxima and minima
- Gradient
- Divergence and Curl
- Vector identities
- Directional derivatives
- Line, Surface and Volume integrals
- Stokes, Gauss and Green's theorems.

**Complex Variables:**

- Analytic functions
- Cauchy's integral theorem
- Taylor and Laurent series.

**Probability and Statistics:**

- Definitions of probability and sampling theorems
- Conditional probability
- Mean, median, mode and standard deviation
- Random variables
- Exponential, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distributions.

**Geo-Engineering**

- Continents
- Earth composition
- Earth - Orbit, Oceans - Depth, Bottom, Relief Rocks, Kinds of rocks, minerals & physical properties of minerals
- Surveying methods: Topographic surveying, Theodolite applications, topographic sheets, aerial photo formats
- Maps: map projections, cartography
- Physical principles of remote sensing, electromagnetic spectrum GIS concepts and applications
- Study of rainfall, estimation of run-off and evapotranspiration, water table
- Environment - meaning, scope, components Environments.
- Soils-texture, strengths, porosity and permeability

** Programming in C:**

- Variables, data types, expressions, control structures, arrays, functions, pointers, structures.

## Instrumentation Engineering (EI)

**Engineering Mathematics**

** Linear Algebra:**

- Matrix Algebra
- Systems of linear equations
- Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

**Calculus:**

- Mean value theorems
- Theorems of integral calculus
- Evaluation of definite and improper integrals
- Partial Derivatives
- Maxima and minima
- Multiple integrals
- Fourier series
- Vector identities
- Directional derivatives
- Line, Surface and Volume integrals
- Stokes, Gauss and Green's theorems.

** Differential Equations:**

- First-order equation (linear and nonlinear)
- Higher-order linear differential equations with constant coefficients
- Method of variation of parameters
- Cauchy's and Euler's equations
- Initial and boundary value problems
- Partial Differential Equations and variable separable method.

** Complex Variables:**

- Analytic functions
- Cauchy's integral theorem and integral formula
- Taylor's and Laurent' series
- Residue theorem, solution integrals.

** Probability and Statistics:**

- Probability
- Sampling theorems
- Conditional probability
- Probability Density Function
- Mean, median, mode and standard deviation
- Random variables
- Discrete and continuous distributions
- Exponential, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distribution
- Correlation and regression analysis.

**Numerical Methods:**

- Solutions of non-linear algebraic equations
- Single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

**Instrumentation Engineering**

** Basics of Circuits and Measurement Systems:**

- Kirchoff's laws, mesh and nodal Analysis
- Circuit theorems
- Report and two-port Network Functions
- Static and dynamic characteristics of Measurement Systems
- Error and uncertainty analysis
- Statistical analysis of data and curve fitting.

**Transducers, Mechanical Measurement and Industrial Instrumentation:**

- Resistive, Capacitive, Inductive and piezoelectric transducers and their signal conditioning
- Measurement of displacement, velocity and acceleration (translational and rotational), force, torque, vibration and shock
- Measurement of pressure, flow, temperature and liquid level.
- Measurement of pH, conductivity, viscosity and humidity.

** Analog Electronics:**

- Characteristics of diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET
- Diode circuits
- Transistors at low and high frequencies, Amplifiers, single and multi-stage
- Feedback amplifiers
- Operational amplifiers, characteristics and circuit configurations
- Instrumentation amplifier
- Precision rectifier. V-to-I and I-to-V converter
- Op-Amp based active filters
- Oscillators and signal generators.

** Digital Electronics:**

- Combinational logic circuits, minimization of Boolean functions.
- IC families, TTL, MOS and CMOS.
- Arithmetic circuits.
- Comparators, Schmitt trigger, timers and mono-stable multi-vibrator.
- Sequential circuits, flip-flops, counters, shift registers.
- Multiplexer, S/H circuit. Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog converters.
- Basics of number system.
- Microprocessor applications, memory and input-output interfacing.
- Microcontrollers.

** Electrical and Electronic Measurements:**

- Bridges and potentiometers, measurement of R, L and C.
- Measurements of voltage, current, power, power factor and energy. A.C & D.C current probes.
- Extension of instrument ranges. Q meter and waveform analyzer.
- Digital voltmeter and multi-meter.
- Time, phase and frequency measurements.
- Cathode ray oscilloscope.
- Serial and parallel communication.
- Shielding and grounding.

** Control Systems and Process Control:**

- Feedback principles.
- Signal flow graphs.
- Transient Response, steady-state-errors.
- Routh and Nyquist criteria. Bode plot, root loci.
- Time delay systems.
- Phase and gain margin.
- State-space representation of systems.
- Mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic system components.
- Synchro pair, servo and step motors.
- On-off, cascade, P, PI, PID, feed forward and derivative controller
- Fuzzy controllers.

**Analytical, Optical and Biomedical Instrumentation:**

- Mass spectrometry. UV, visible and IR spectrometry.
- X-ray and nuclear radiation measurements.
- Optical sources and detectors, LED, laser, Photo-diode, photo-resistor and their characteristics.
- Interferometers, applications in metrology.
- Basics of fibre optics.
- Biomedical instruments, EEG, ECG and EMG.
- Clinical measurements.
- Ultrasonic transducers and Ultrasonography.
- Principles of Computer Assisted Tomography.

## Mechanical Engineering (ME)

**Engineering Mathematics**

** Linear Algebra:**

- Matrix algebra
- Systems of linear equations
- Eigenvalues and eigen vectors.

** Calculus:**

- Functions of single variable
- Limit, continuity and differentiability
- Mean value theorems
- Evaluation of definite and improper integrals
- Partial derivatives
- Total derivative
- Maxima and minima
- Gradient
- Divergence and Curl
- Vector identities
- Directional derivatives
- Line, Surface and Volume integrals
- Stokes
- Gauss and Green's theorems.

** Differential Equations:**

- First-order equations (linear and nonlinear)
- Higher-order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchy's and Euler's equations
- Initial and boundary value problems
- Laplace transforms
- Solutions of one-dimensional heat and wave equations
- Laplace equation

**Complex Variables:**

- Analytic functions
- Cauchy's integral theorem
- Taylor and Laurent series
- Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems
- Conditional probability
- Mean, median, mode and standard deviation
- Random variables
- Exponential
- Poisson, Normal and Binomial distributions.

** Numerical Methods:**

- Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations
- Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson's rule
- Single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

**Applied Mechanics and Design **

**Engineering** **Mechanics:**

- Free body diagrams and equilibrium
- Trusses and frames
- Virtual work
- Kinematics and dynamics of particles and rigid bodies in plane motion, including impulse and momentum (linear and angular) and energy formulations
- Impact.

** Strength of Materials:**

- Stress and strain, stress-strain relationship and elastic constants
- Mohr's circle for plane stress and plane strain, thin cylinders
- Shear force and bending moment diagrams
- Bending and shear stresses
- Deflection of beams
- Torsion of circular shafts
- Euler's theory of columns
- Strain energy methods
- Thermal stresses.

**Theory of Machines:**

- Displacement, velocity and acceleration analysis of plane mechanisms
- Dynamic analysis of slider-crank mechanism
- Gear trains
- Flywheels.

** Vibrations:**

- Free and forced vibration of single degree of freedom systems
- Effect of damping
- Vibration isolation
- Resonance, critical speeds of shafts

**Design:**

- Design for static and dynamic loading
- Failure theories
- Fatigue strength and the S-N diagram
- Principles of the design of machine elements such as bolted, riveted and welded joints, shafts, spur gears, rolling and sliding contact bearings, brakes and clutches.

**Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences**

**Fluid Mechanics:**

- Fluid properties
- Fluid statics, manometry, buoyancy
- Control-volume analysis of mass, momentum and energy
- Fluid acceleration
- Differential equations of continuity and momentum
- Bernoulli's equation
- Viscous flow of incompressible fluids
- Boundary layer
- Elementary turbulent flow
- Flow-through pipes, head losses in pipes, bends etc.

**Thermodynamics:**

- Zeroth, First and Second laws of thermodynamics
- Thermodynamic system and processes
- Carnot cycle. Irreversibility and availability
- Behaviour of ideal and real gases
- Properties of pure substances
- Calculation of work and heat in ideal processes
- Analysis of thermodynamic cycles related to energy conversion.

**Applications:**

- Power Engineering: Steam Tables
- Rankine
- Brayton cycles with regeneration and reheat.
- I.C. Engines: air-standard Otto, Diesel cycles.
- Refrigeration and air-conditioning: Vapour refrigeration cycle, heat pumps, gas refrigeration
- Reverse Brayton cycle
- Moist air: psychrometric chart, basic psychrometric processes.
- Turbomachinery: Pelton wheel, Francis and Kaplan turbines - impulse and reaction principles
- Velocity diagrams.

**Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering**

**Engineering Materials:**

- Structure and properties of engineering materials
- Heat treatment, stress-strain diagrams for engineering materials.

**Metal Casting:**

- Design of patterns, moulds and cores
- Solidification and cooling; riser and gating design, design considerations.

** Forming:**

- Plastic deformation and yield criteria
- Fundamentals of hot and cold working processes
- Load estimation for bulk (forging, rolling, extrusion, drawing) and sheet (shearing, deep drawing, bending) metal forming processes
- Principles of powder metallurgy.