PhD is doctoral program with the duration of 3 to 5 years that deals with a variety of research methods and specialisation and some of these specialisations include English, Microbiology, Psychology and more. Graduates of this course have a wide variety of job opportunities in the world of research. Ph.D graduates primarily work as consultants, researchers, professors, and R&D industry experts.
|Full Form||Doctor of Philosphy|
|Duration||Course Duration of Doctor of Philosophy [Ph.D] is 3 Years.|
|Age||No age limit|
|Minimum Percentage||60% in Post Graduation|
|Average Fees Incurred||NR 72,000 - 4 LPA|
|Average Salary Offered||INR 3.4 LPA [Source: Glassdoor]|
|Employment Roles||Professor, Principal Scientist, Research Associate etc.|
PhD full form is Doctor of Philosophy. According to Wikipedia, "A Doctor of Philosophy is the most common degree at the highest academic level awarded following a course of study. PhD is awarded for programs across the whole breadth of academic fields. Because it is an earned research degree, those studying for a PhD must produce original research that expands the boundaries of knowledge, normally in the form of a thesis or dissertation, and defend their work against experts in the field. Completing a PhD is often a requirement for employment as a university professor, researcher, or scientist in many fields".
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The admission procedure for PhD courses requires a master's degree from a recognized University. Students should have secured a minimum of 45-50% in their exams post, which they are required to qualify for any one of the national/state level entrance exams to get admitted for PhD. Students should prepare their research proposal as they will have to send it to the college of their choice for the application process. The PhD eligibility criteria depend on the college, and the course students are interested in applying for.
The admission process for a PhD is not complicated, but it is tedious as there are many steps in the admission process. If students qualify the eligibility criteria for the course, they will be able to get admission for a PhD. Along with getting good grades at the master's level, students are expected to appear for an entrance exam.
There is no minimum or maximum age requirement for admission.
Students can apply online or offline. Due to the COVID pandemic, the admission process for PhD in most universities has become online. Students need to visit the official website and look for the course they are interested in. Then they should fill out the PhD admission form by giving out their name, phone number, email address, course they are interested in, etc. The students must visit the respective college for offline registration and fill out the application form by attaching the required documents.
Once the application is accepted, there can be a final round of group discussions or personal interviews done by universities based on the college. They ask the aspirants to explain their research proposal and defend its relevance before confirmation of admission.
Read More: PhD Admission
PhD is a postdoctoral degree that lasts between 3 - 6 years, depending on the specialization and college students decide to pursue and if the education is full-time or part-time. Doing them has also opened up multiple avenues and job profiles. In India, the PhD courses provide excellent exposure to multiple opportunities and qualify them to work in their respective research areas either in India or abroad.
Listed below are some of the top specializations of a PhD course:
Other popular PhD specialisations are listed below:
|PhD Courses List|
|PhD in Computer Science and Engineering||PhD in Biotechnology|
|PhD in Finance||PhD in English Literature|
|PhD in Maths||PhD in Hindi|
|PhD in Sociology||PhD in History|
|PhD in Commerce||PhD in Management Studies|
|PhD in Chemistry||PhD in Microbiology|
|PhD in Media Studies||PhD in Pharmacy|
PhD programmes are available at a variety of universities in various subjects and topics of interest to the candidates. Here is a list of the various PhD streams available:
Below is the list of PhD courses in Science:
The PhD courses in Humanities and Social Sciences are as follows:
Below is the list of PhD Courses in Engineering:
Below is a list of PhD courses in the Commerce stream:
Below is a list of PhD courses in the Business Management:
Below is a list of PhD courses in Law:
Below is a list of PhD courses in the Medical stream:
The list below contains the names of PhD courses in the Pharmaceutical stream:
Below are some PhD courses in the Agriculture stream:
There are various categories of students who pursue PhD. Below is a list of PhD Candidates:
PhD is a competitive course that many students apply for. Since a PhD qualification is a very valued qualification not provided by many colleges, there is a lot of competition amongst students to get admission there. To make the decision-making process fair, colleges introduce an entrance exam as a screening process. Some of the most popular PhD entrance exams are listed below:
The eligibility criteria of the above-mentioned entrance exams are entirely dependent on the conduction body; hence it varies. While the format of the entrance exams varies on the specialisation, as each college or subject has its own governing body. Below listed are some of the general guidelines of the PhD entrance examinations:
Below is the list of the 10 best PhD Colleges in the country:
|NIRF Ranking||Top colleges for PhD|
|1||University of Calcutta|
|3||Amrita University, Coimbatore|
|26||Aligarh Muslim University|
|35||Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal|
There are numerous government-funded colleges that offer PhD in various courses across various streams. Here is a tabular list of the top PhD government colleges in India:
|4||Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur|
|6||Jamia Millia Islamia, Delhi|
|7||Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh|
|8||Calcutta University, Kolkata|
|9||Jadavpur University, Kolkata|
|10||Institute of Advanced Study in Education, Chennai|
Prestigious private institutes are sprawled all across India offering PhD courses. Below is a table of the top private colleges offering PhD in India:
|2||Bombay College of Pharmacy, Mumbai|
|3||Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education, Chennai|
|6||Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal|
|7||PRIST University, Tamil Nadu|
Chennai is home to some of the country's best national and international colleges. The following are the top PhD colleges in Chennai:
|1||Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education|
|3||Sri Ramachandra Medical College|
Read More: Top PhD Colleges in Tamil Nadu
Some of the best national and international colleges in the country are located in Bangalore. The top PhD schools in Bangalore are as follows:
|2||Berean Baptist Bible College and Seminary|
|3||South Asia Institute of Advanced Christian Studies|
|4||BMS School of Architecture|
|5||The University of Trans-disciplinary Health Sciences and Technology|
Read More: Top PhD Colleges in Karnataka
Delhi is home to some of the country's most prestigious national and international colleges. The following are the best PhD schools in Delhi:
|2||National Law University|
|3||Faculty of Management Studies|
Read More: Top PhD Colleges in Delhi
Some of the most prestigious national and international colleges in the country can be found in Kolkata. The best PhD programmes in Kolkata are listed below:
|1||University of Calcutta|
|3||Techno India University|
Read More: Top PhD Colleges in Kolkata
Major universities in India can obtain the best PhD in Philosophy in India. IIT provides outstanding opportunities for scientific and technological research.
IIT Bombay is one of India's best institutions and a trustworthy place to pursue a PhD. There are 35 programmes in total, and applicants can specialise in any of them.
Candidates must have a degree and pass one of the UGC NET, GATE, or CEED exams to be eligible for these programmes at IIT Bombay. The speciality of PhD at IIT Bombay is shown in the table below.
|3||Intellectual Property Rights Law|
|4||Computer Science and Engineering|
|11||Technology and Development|
|17||Energy Science and Engineering|
|20||Regulatory and Policy Studies|
|22||Nano Science and Technology|
|30||Instrumentation and Control|
|34||Environmental Science and Engineering|
Doctoral programmes are also available at IIT Madras for those interested. It appears to be considered one of India's top IIT institutes, and it also offers PhD programmes in a variety of specialisations.
Admission to the doctorate programmes at IIT Madras requires a master's diploma in engineering with at least 60% combined marks. Applicants must also have valid GATE, NET, CSIR-JRF, or UGC-JRF scores.
|3||Science and Humanities|
|10||Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering|
|16||Climate and Ocean Science|
|20||Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science|
IIT Indore is a prestigious institute in India, and it is well-known for its PhD programmes. PhD programmes at IIT Indore are typically three years long and include around 15 specialisations. To be admitted to those programmes, candidates must take and pass the GATE exam, CSIR, NET, JRF, and other exams.
|6||Computer Science and Engineering|
|10||Biosciences and Biomedical Engineering|
IIT Bhubaneswar is an autonomous university that is ranked among the best in the country. It is a well-known educational institution for obtaining a PhD and is well-known for its engineering courses. Candidates must have a CGPA of at least 7 and an overall score of 60% to be eligible for this programme, as well as pass the GATE, CSIR NET, or UGC exam.
|9||Electronics and Communication Engineering|
|14||Metallurgical and Materials Engineering|
|15||Climate and Ocean Science|
The Indian Institute of Science (IISC) has a number of PhD programmes available. The institute's excellent infrastructure, faculty, and rankings make this degree worthwhile. NIRF ranked us second in both 2019 and 2020. Candidates must hold a bachelor's degree or higher in the relevant field and pass the Internet JRF, GATE, or GPAT entrance exams.
|3||Molecular Reproduction; Development and Genetics|
|4||Microbiology and Cell Biology|
|8||Inorganic and Physical Chemistry|
|11||Astronomy and Astrophysics|
|12||Solid-State and Structural Chemistry|
|14||High Energy Physics|
|16||Computer Science and Automation|
|17||Electronic Systems Engineering|
|18||Electrical Communication Engineering|
|19||Computational Data Sciences|
|21||Nanoscience and Engineering|
|23||Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences|
|28||Centre for Product Design and Manufacturing|
|30||Instrumentation and Applied Physics|
|33||Biosystems Science and Engineering|
|36||Nanoscience and Engineering|
|39||Brain and Artificial Intelligence|
IIT Hyderabad is one of the most accessible universities in Telangana for pursuing a PhD. In 2020, he was ranked 17th by the NIRF. Thousands of scientists are enrolled in the institute, which offers 13 PhD programmes in total. M.Tech degrees from accredited educational institutions, as well as GATE, CSIR NET, JRF, UGC NET, and other qualifications, are the basic qualification criteria for obtaining an IIT Hyderabad PhD here.
|3||Computer Science and Engineering|
|13||Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science|
VTU, or Visvesvaraya Technological University, is located in Bergham. Candidates may apply to both full-time and part-time programmes, as well as the PhD programme on a part-time basis. For courses, the candidate must be a candidate with a 6.5 CGPA in its upgrade certificate.
|4||Computer Science and Engineering|
|14||Library and Information Science|
|16||Polymer Science and Technology|
Bangalore University is a good teaching institute for PhD programmes and is located in Bangalore, Karnataka. The university is a member of the NAAC, ACU, and AIC, and it is also ranked number one by the NIRF.
To be eligible for the PhD programme at Bangalore University, applicants must have an undergraduate degree with a minimum overall score of 55%. Candidates will be chosen based on their performance in both the college entrance exam and the personal interview.
|Computer Science and Engineering|
|Speech and Hearing|
Amity University, Noida is a well-known institute with campuses throughout India. Without a doubt, pursuing a doctoral programme here is something to think about. The university offers over 70 different doctoral programmes. Applicants must have a Master's or Master's degree in Philosophy or a related field, with a minimum overall score of 55%, to be eligible for this exam. Applicants may also use a CGPA of 6.0 on a scale of 10 or 66% of the total score in 10th or 12th grade. Entrance exams such as UGC NET, CSIR, ICAR (ASRP), GATE, ICMR, GPAT, and DST are also required. Amity University's average PhD fee is INR 1,20,000.
|Hospital Administration||Finance||Renewable Energy|
|Hospitality||Anthropology||Architecture and Planning|
|Psychology||Forensic Science||International Relation|
|Law||Chemistry||Cellular and Molecular Oncology|
|Mass Communication||Pharmaceutical Sciences||Radiation Biology|
|Ecological Sciences||Computer Science and Engineering||Immunology|
|Bioinformatics||Materials and Devices||Rural Management|
|Natural Resources||Special Education||Fashion Management|
|Polymer Science and Technology||Biosensors||Defence and Strategic Studies|
|Remote Sensing||Physical Education||Horticulture|
|Travel and Tourism Management||Physiotherapy||Physiology|
|Economics||Mechanical and Automation Engineering||Microbial Technology|
|History||Neuroscience||Nuclear Science and Technology|
|Fine Arts||Food Technology||Stem Cell|
|Clinical Psychology||Mathematics||Renewable Energy|
|Public Health||Electrical Engineering||Geoinformatics and Remote Sensing|
|Food and Nutrition||Sociology||Climate Change and Ecological Studies|
|Management Studies||Political Science||Aerospace Engineering|
|Competitive Intelligence||Physical and Molecular Science||Physics|
|Wildlife Sciences||Agriculture||Solar Energy|
|Microbial Biotechnology||Natural Product Studies||Information Technology|
JNU, or Nehru University, is one of India's best universities, particularly for studies. At JNU, a doctoral programme must last at least four years. Applicants must have a postgraduate degree and a total score of at least fifty. Candidates will be chosen based on their performance in the CBT test and their loud voice performance. The average JNU PhD fee is INR 1,381 P.A.
|Economics||History (Mediaeval and Modern)|
|Law and Governance||Kannada|
|International Trade and Development||Canadian Studies|
|Physical Science||Science Policy|
|Ancient History||Latin American Studies|
|Computer Systems||Cinema Studies|
|Diplomacy and Disarmament||Comparative Politics|
|West Asian Studies||North East India Studies|
|German||South Asian Studies|
|Management of Informal Sector||Chinese Studies|
|Social Exclusion and Inclusive Policy||African Studies|
|Biotechnology||International Legal Studies|
|Linguistics||Computational Biology and Bioinformatics|
|Population Studies||International Organisation|
|Nano Science and Technology||Arabic|
|Discrimination and Exclusion Studies||-|
Delhi University or DU is one of the best colleges in Delhi, as well as in overall India. It achieved the 18th and 20th rank by the NIRF in 2019 and 2020 respectively. The basic eligibility criteria for pursuing a PhD program in DU is having a master's degree or holding an M.Phil degree with a minimum of 55% aggregate scores. The entrance exams accepted in this university are UGC NET, JRF, and SLET, and also the college conducts its own DU entrance exam. The average fees for DU PhD Programs are INR 45,000.
|Pharmacology||Obstetrics and Gynaecology Nursing|
|History||Electronics and Communication|
|Resource Management and Design Application||Paediatrics|
|Fabric and Apparel Science||Business Economics|
|Anthropology||Manufacturing Process and Automation Engineering|
|Library and Information Science||African Studies|
|Home Science||French/ Italian/ German/ Hispanic studies|
|Surgery||Human Development and Childhood Studies|
|Social Work||Pulmonary Medicine|
|Chemistry||Instrumentation and Control|
|Operational Research||Plant Molecular Biology|
|Medicine||Adult Continuing Education and Extension|
|Community Medicine||Computer Science|
|Pulmonary Medicine||Financial Studies|
|Biomedical Sciences||Medicinal Microbiology|
|Applied Science and Humanities||-|
Applicants are also eligible to pursue a PhD at the University of Mumbai. It is a well-known government university with a three-year doctoral programme. Applicants must have a Master's or Master of Philosophy degree from an accredited educational institution and an overall score of at least 55%. Applicants must also have valid GATE, UGC, SET, JRF ICAR, and CSIR scores.
|8||Library and Information Science|
|28||Pali and Prakrit|
IIT Kharagpur is one of India's best IITs, as well as one of the best colleges in the country. The NIRF ranked fifth in both 2020 and 2019. IIT Kharagpur offers 17 PhD programmes in total. A minimum CGPA of 6.5 or aggregate marks of 60% at the postgraduate level is required to pursue a doctorate degree at IIT Kharagpur.
|2||Humanities and Social Science|
|4||Engineering and Technology|
|7||Quality Improvement Programme|
|9||Architecture and Planning|
|17||Electrical Communication Engineering|
According to the QS World University Rankings, the world's best universities offer PhD. programmes. Rankings for 2021 and 2020 are available so that schools can be compared on a regular basis.
|Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)||1||1|
|California Institute of Technology - Caltech||4||5|
|University of Oxford||5||4|
|ETH Zurich - Swiss Federal Institute of Technology||6||6|
|University of Cambridge||7||7|
|Imperial College London||8||9|
|University of Chicago||9||10|
|University College London (UCL)||10||8|
Harvard University is regarded as one of the world's top educational institutions. Many candidates have worked extremely hard to gain admission to their current university and continue their education. It provides programmes in eight different specializations, including a doctoral programme. This institute's doctoral programmes typically cost around INR 38 LPA.
Furthermore, the university provides both full-time and part-time study options. All applicants to the current university must take the GRE or GMAT exam. Those interested in studying the following subjects at this university:
Another of the world's top universities is MIT or the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It is a private university with an employment rate of 82%. According to US news, it will be ranked third among national universities in 2020. MIT is a well-known institute for those interested in pursuing PhD programmes. It offers a total of 29 research programmes. The average course fee for doctoral programmes at MIT is around INR 21 LPA. All students must submit their GRE entrance examination scores to be considered.
Among the PhD specializations offered by MIT are:
According to the QS World ranking and numerous other organizations, Oxford University is also one of the best universities in the world. Many experts consider it to be the world's easiest university. It is a public research university with an acceptance rate of 15%. Oxford University has a 45% international student population, and pursuing a PhD here is worthwhile. It offers 17 research programmes, which are detailed below -
Stanford University in California, USA, is regarded as one of the world's most prestigious research institutions. It is ranked among the top five colleges globally and has a strong reputation for pursuing research programmes. It is well-known for its research programmes. Applicants to Stanford University have access to approximately 60 doctoral courses. The majors available are as follows:
Doctoral students from all over the world come to Cambridge University to pursue their studies. It is a one-of-a-kind college with a 16% acceptance rate. Every year, 9,000 international students are admitted to this institute.
Applicants must pass the GMAT or GRE entrance exam to be considered for Cambridge University study programmes. It is reputed to be the most straightforward university for doctoral programmes. Through this website, candidates can apply to 66 PhD programmes. Examine the specializations that are available below.
The course fee for PhD depends on the college students are interested in applying for. Many factors would influence the fee structure, such as the location, facilities, faculty and infrastructure. PhD is one of the few courses where there are many PhD scholarships available for students. Private organizations, colleges and NGOs provide scholarships to help students pursue their research without financial burden. The average course fees range from INR 72,000 - to 4 LPA. Candidates can pay the fees yearly.
The course and subjects for a PhD degree depend on the specialization aspirants decide to pursue. There are over 1000 courses in which students can choose to specialize, and therefore, for understanding the course subjects, aspiring students should search for PhD course details online.
Listed below are some subjects that the students get a chance to study:
Read More About PhD Syllabus and Subjects
A PhD is a doctoral research degree and is normally the highest academic qualification you can achieve. The degree works towards a thesis offering an original contribution to your subject. There are many specializations that students can pursue based on their interests. PhD graduates can have a very rewarding career after graduation, as not many people pursue this course. To understand the answer to the question, "Why choose PhD?" we should make it simpler by breaking it down into the following three short questions:
PhD is a final degree that students get in during their education. Aspirants can pursue a PhD degree in whichever field of education they are interested in. The primary focus of this educational program is to introduce students to the research and exploration aspects of the subject they choose to pursue. Students can pursue subjects such as Humanities, Engineering and more. After this course, there are many job opportunities for students as they can become researchers, professors, and consultants. A full-time PhD course duration is 3 - 4 years; for part-time, the duration is 5-6 years.
The speciality of the PhD course is that it provides knowledge in theory through research. It enables students to work as researchers, professors, consultants, analysts, etc. They have a variety of shared responsibilities and functions in their role; some of them are:
Research and Development: PhD graduates are responsible for representing new areas of research and ethics. Their role entails them studying and researching the missing parts in the field they are interested in.
Teaching and Educating: Graduates of this course are the most aware of the different themes in the subject they choose to research. Therefore, a part of their job is to teach and educate the younger generation about their subject and research.
A PhD is an essential degree for the job market today as it provides students with all the essential skills to learn about a specific specialization and excel in it. The skills can help students make a career in teaching and research and, therefore, help them create a remarkable difference in the field they are interested in.
Demand: The role has a lot of demand in the Research, Teaching and innovation industries. Therefore, students don't need to worry about gaining work experience after graduation.
Long-Term Demand: PhDs will always have a demand in the job market as the knowledge they possess is key for every industry to succeed and continue. Due to this reason, no matter the market situation, it is very less likely that PhDs will find their job threatened.
Read More About PhD Jobs
It is impossible to predict the exact salary that a PhD graduate earns, as many factors can affect this decision. Some of these factors students can control if students do internships and gain work experience can increase their chances of getting a higher salary. According to Glassdoor, a PhD graduate's average salary is INR 3.4 LPA in India. This value can change depending on the city, years of experience, designation, etc.
Read More About PhD Salary
Job opportunities are available in plenty for PhD graduates in both the public and private sectors. The job roles offered will be of the highest level of employment owing to their knowledge and research-based experience.
The most common roles the graduates work in are:
PhD graduates need to have skills to help them succeed in their professional lives. These skills don't just help the students succeed in their research process. After they have completed their research, aspirants will need these skills to ensure that they succeed in their workplace. Some of these skills include: