LLM or Master of Laws is a two years post-graduation course that deals with specialized training in legal practices, where students can gain professional law certification in specialized streams such as taxation law, corporate law, etc. LLM graduates have diverse job scopes in various law agencies dealing with numerous clients like international law agencies, taxation agencies, and corporate sectors, etc.
|Full Form||Master of Laws / Legum Magister|
|Duration||Course Duration of Master of Laws [LLM] is 2 Years.|
|Age||No age limit|
|Minimum Percentage||55% in LLB|
|Average Fees Incurred||INR 2 - 5 LPA|
|Average Salary Offered||INR 8 - 20 LPA [Source: Payscale]|
|Employment Roles||Advocate, Corporate Legal Manager, Corporate Lawyer, Legal Manager, Legal Assistant, Immigration Consultant, Human Rights Lawyer, RTI Activist, HR Manager etc.|
According to Wikipedia, LLM is defined as "an advanced postgraduate academic degree, pursued by graduates with an undergraduate academic law degree, a professional law degree, or an undergraduate degree in a related subject."
The LLM Full form is Legum Magister which is a postgraduate law course primarily a program introduced by UGC as a 2-year program. As of 1st January 2021, the Bar Council of India has issued a notice to ban 1-year LLM courses from the next academic year. The LLM course duration in India is 2-years. The course is a universally recognized master's program in specialized law.
Apart from specialized law practice, this course also imparts the host country's legal training to foreign lawyers. It helps the practising lawyers switch nationals easily and work as international lawyers of a particular country.
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For admission into the LLM course, aspirants must have met the eligibility requirements chartered by the University of Grants Commissions and Indian Bar Council. Students must complete their undergraduate degree with a minimum aggregate of 50% from a recognized university. Apart from that, selective universities conduct entrance exams for admissions, for which, aspirants are required to clear with a good percentile. The minimum age to apply for the course is 21 years.
The admission process for the LLM course is done based on the LLM eligibility criteria set by respective universities guided by UGC and the Indian bar council. LLM admission is done only via merit-based quota and there are no seats under the management quota. In any LLM specialization, aspirants interested in pursuing a specialized degree must have completed their bachelor's law degree with an aggregate score over 50% and should've cleared entrance exams prescribed by elective universities.
The admission requirements differ based on the domain and the college's reputation. Listed below are the steps for the admission process in general:
The aspirants can either apply online or offline for the desired institution. COVID-19 has forced universities to conduct admissions online. Students are needed to log in to the official website of the university and fill in the necessary details.
The selection criteria are based on the cutoff scores. The university cutoff score is the aggregate of entrance exam scores and undergraduate scores. Aspirants eligible for admissions are called for personal interviews before seat allocation. The personal interview is conducted to test aspirants' willingness and knowledge of the specialization.
LLM courses are offered either as full-time courses, distance LLM courses, and online-based learning LLM courses. Law is applicable everywhere, and there are separate sets of laws governing every jurisdiction. The diverse jurisdiction requires specialized legal personnel to handle cases in that domain and establish legal authority. Listed below are top LLM specializations in India:
Other popular LLM specialisations are listed below:
|S.No||LLM Course List|
|1||LLM Insurance Law|
|3||LLM Family Law|
|4||LLM Human Rights|
|5||LLM Healthcare and Medicinal Law|
|6||LLM Intellectual Property Law|
|7||LLM Fashion Law|
|8||LLM Sports Law|
|9||LLM Information Technology Law|
|10||LLM Air and Space Law|
|11||LLM Cybersecurity Law|
|12||LLM Legal History|
The LLM course details can be found online. The entrance exam is conducted in the form of an online written test. There are several national and state-level entrance examinations affiliated across several universities. Apart from that, selected universities conduct a university level examination for the admission process, apart from national level examinations.
The questions asked for the examination are specialization-oriented. A percentage of questions can be expected from fundamental law and constitutional sciences. Admissions are offered based on the examination scores secured by the student along with the university cutoff. Some of the popular LLM entrance exams are listed below:
Entrance exams are mandatory criteria for LLM admissions. The exam pattern for specified LLM courses is institution-specific and varies from one conducting body to another. The standard format for the entrance exam is listed below:
Apart from state-recognized law schools, several universities are offering LLM courses in India. Below listed are the top colleges that NIRF ranks:
|NIRF Ranking||Name of the College|
|1||National Law School of India University, Bangalore|
|3||Nalsar University of Law, Hyderabad|
|4||National Law University, Jodhpur|
|7||Symbiosis Law School, Pune|
|11||Dr.Ram Manohar Lohiya National Law University, Lucknow|
|6||The West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences, Kolkata|
|12||KIIT University, Bhubaneswar|
|15||Panjab University, Chandigarh|
|18||Indian Law Institute, Delhi|
When pursuing LLM, there are a lot of opportunities for the aspirants to go abroad. However, the minimum eligibility requirement for pursuing LLM Abroad is, that students should have cleared a Bachelor of Law or LLB degree and should have also cleared either of the following entrance exams TOEFL or IELTS.
There are a lot of opportunities in Canada when it comes to studying LLM. Given below are some of the top colleges for the same:
|SI.No||Name of College|
|1||University of Toronto|
|4||University of British Columbia|
There are a lot of opportunities in the UK when it comes to studying LLM. Given below are some of the top colleges for the same:
|SI.No||Name of College|
|1||University of Sussex|
|2||University of Leeds|
|3||University of Bath|
|4||University of London|
There are a lot of opportunities in the USA when it comes to studying LLM. Given below are some of the top colleges for the same:
|SI.No||Name of College|
|2||University of Chicago|
|4||New York University|
LLM is a postgraduate law degree with a varied duration. LLM duration in India may range from 1 to 2 years of study, depending on the university that offers the course. The average LLM fees range from INR 50,000 - to 4 LPA. Some of the LLM colleges are listed below according to their fees structure:
|National Law University||INR 2 LPA|
|Symbiosis Law School||INR 1.2 LPA|
|Panjab University||INR 50,000|
|Indian law Institute||INR 1 LPA|
|The West Bengal National University of Juridical Science||INR 1.75 LPA|
LLM is an internationally recognized postgraduate degree. The syllabus for LLM entirely depends on the area of specialization one chooses to pursue. Apart from the specialization subjects, there are some fundamental legal procedure subjects in UGC's curriculum. The syllabus offers in-depth knowledge and nuances of specialized law domains along with essential law practice.
Apart from theoretical subjects, LLM also helps students to attain good law practice and experience. This course offers practical insight into different law fields as the course promises high-level specializations and educates aspirants about the latest legal changes in various systems. Apart from specialized law, LLM also facilitates the practice of international law in selected nations. Some of the subjects that are included in the LLM syllabus are:
Read More about LLM Syllabus and Subjects
LLM is the second highest degree in the domain, and several bar councils internationally recognize it. The course aims to make the graduates professionally strong by inculcating in-depth knowledge along with regular legal practice. Let's get to know more about "Why choose LLM ?" by breaking it into three simpler questions.
An LLM course duration is for two years which offers a study of imparting quality legal education with an understanding of constitution and legal system functions under various jurisdictions. The degree provides the aspirants with all the knowledge required to handle cases in a specialized domain, along with adequate legal practice. LLM coursework consists of basic subjects like law and social transformation in India, jurisprudence LLM is one of the premium law degrees that prepare the students from a base level to handle problems associated with specialized domains.
Listed below are the various job functionalities of an LLM graduate:
LLM graduates have higher job scopes than LLB graduates owing to their specialized knowledge. LLM graduates are bound to have a more stabilized job market than LLB. Having an LLM degree with strong technical skills can fetch job opportunities across the world. Listed below are the reason why the LLM course is a boon for the graduates:
Read More about LLM Jobs
Listed below are the preparation tips suggested for the LLM course:
Prepare for Exams: Have a study plan and cover all critical points while preparing. Understand the exam pattern and the examination syllabus to get the hang of a proper study plan.
Strengthen Your Fundamentals: The course requires the student to be more assertive in basic constitutional law and legal practice. A strong fundamental will help them to understand advanced concepts easily.
Legal Practice: During the coursework, it is advisable that graduates also do regular pro-bono or designated legal practices under the bar council. It will help them to apply the concepts pursued and further enhance their practical experience.
Update Regularly: To get a hold of new laws, students must keep themselves updated on jurisdiction changes. Students can follow the line via online magazines and newspapers.
LLM is not the limit for students who are willing to pursue more. Students who want to pursue higher education can do domain-specific certification courses. Graduates can also pursue a JD (Doctor of Judicial Science) in their desired specialization. Some of the options of systems to pursue after LLM are listed below.
The average salary for an LLM graduate ranges from INR 8 - 15 LPA depending on the specialization and domain. Career growth is based on experience and technical knowledge in the domain.
Read More about LLM Salary
LLM course offers diverse job scope adhering to the specialization pursued. Graduates are entitled to receive offers from reputed organizations across India and worldwide, promoting an international career.
LLM course helps aspirants to be certified professionals in their work area. Some of the career options available are:
Every industry is governed by a separate jurisdiction and requires talented legal personnel. In this chosen field, both experience and legal knowledge play a vital role in handling several clients to help graduates thrive in this career line. LLM helps the aspirants to cement their superiority in the legal field. Some of them are:
The eligibility criteria is student need to qualify his/her graduation from a recognized university. For students currently in the final year of graduation, the criteria is to qualify for the Higher secondary exam.
There are no entrance exams for admission.