GPAT 2019 Syllabus

Exam Date : 28th January 2019
Result Date : 8th February 2019

GPAT 2019 Syllabus 

Subjects: GPAT 2019 examination will be based on the syllabus prescribed for Physical Chemistry, Physical Pharmacy, Organic Chemistry, Pharmaceutics, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Pharmacognosy. However, aspirants must ensure they do extensive preparation on the topics to crack GPAT 2019. 

GPAT 2019 Physical Chemistry Syllabus:

Composition & physical states of matter:

  • Intermolecular forces & their impact on the state of the matter. Various physical properties of matter, dipole moment, dielectric constant, Van Der Waal's equation & critical phenomenon, liquefaction of gases, aerosols.

Colligative Properties:

  • The liquid state, vapour pressure, ideal & real solutions. Raoult's law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular weight based on colligative properties.

Thermodynamics:

  • First, the second & third law of thermodynamics.

  • Thermochemical laws, isothermic &adiabetic processes, reversible processes, work of expansion, heat content, enthalpy, heat capacity.

  • Gibb's & Helmoltz equation & chemical potential.

Chemical Equilibria:

Phase Rule

  • One, two, & three component systems along with their applications.

  • Solid- solid, solid-liquid, & liquid-liquid systems. Distillation of binary systems, azeotropic mixtures, steam, vacuum, & fractional distillation.

Refractive index

  • Refractive index, specific refractivity, molar refractivity, refractometers.

Solutions

  • Solubility, factors affecting solubility, solubility curves.

  • Types of solutions, the effect of cosolvancy, pH & other factors on solubility.

  • The solubility of gases in liquids, liquids in liquids, & solids in liquids, critical solution temperature, the law of partitioning & its applications.
  • Solute-solvent interactions.

  • Expression of a concentration of pharmaceutical solutions & calculations.

  • Molarity, molality, mole fraction & percentage expressions.

Electrochemistry:

  • Properties of electrolyte solutions, electrolysis.

  • Faraday's law of electrolysis, electron transport, electrical cell, single electrode potential, concentration cells, half-cells & half-cell potential, types of half cells, sign convention, Nernst equation, salt bridge, electromotive series, standard potential, SHE.

  • Measuring the relative voltage of half cells, Calculation of standard potential. Reference & indicator electrodes. Standard oxidation-reduction potential. 

Ionic Equilibrium:

  • Theory of conductivity, equivalent conductance, the mobility of ions, specific conductance.

Kinetics:

  • Order of reactions, derivation & internal form of rate laws, molarities of reaction, derivation of rate constants.

GPAT 2019 Physical Pharmacy Syllabus:

Matter, properties of matter:

  • States of matter, change in the state of matter, latent heat and vapour pressure, sublimation-critical point, eutectic mixtures, gases, aerosols- inhalers, relative humidity, liquid complexes, liquid crystals, glasses state, solid crystalline and amorphous polymorphism.

Micromeritics and powder rheology:

  • Particle size and distribution, average particle size number and weight distribution, particle number, the method of determining particle size and volume, optical microscopy, sieving, sedimentation, determining surface areas, permeability, adsorption, derived properties of powders, porosity, packing arrangement densities, bulkiness and flow properties.

Surface and interfacial phenomenon:

  • Liquid interface, surface and interfacial tensions, surface free energy, measurement of surface and interfacial tension, spreading coefficient, adsorption and liquid interfaces, surface active agents, HLB classification, solubilization, detergency, absorption at solid interfaces, solid gas and solid-liquid interfaces, complex films, electrical properties of interfaces.

Viscosity and Rheology:

  • Newtonian systems, law of flow, kinematic viscosity, effect of temperature, non-Newtonian systems, pseudoplastic, dilatant, plastic, thixotropy in formulations, determination of viscosity and thixotropy by capillary, falling ball, rotational viscometer, application of theology in pharmacy

Dispersion systems:

Colloidal dispersions:

  • Definition, types, properties of colloids, protective colloids, application of colloids in pharmacy.

Suspensions and emulsions:

  • Interfacial properties of suspended particles settling in suspension, theory of sedimentation, effect of Brownian movement, sedimentation of flocculated particles

  • sedimentation parameters, wetting of particles, the significance of electrical properties in dispersions

  • controlled flocculation, flocculation in structured vehicles, rheological considerations,

  • emulsions: types, theories, physical stability.

Complexation:

  • Classification of complexes, methods of preparations and analysis, applications.

Buffer:

  • Buffer equations and buffer capacity in general.
  • Buffers in pharmaceutical systems, 5 preparations, and stability, buffered isotonic solutions.
  • Measurements of tonicity calculations and methods of adjusting isotonicity.

Solubility:

Miscibility-influence of foreign substances:

  • three component systems

  • dielectric constant and solubility,

  • the solubility of solids in liquids

  • ideal and non-ideal solutions

  • solvation and association in solutions

  • the solubility of salts in water

  • the solubility of slightly soluble and weak electrolyte
  • calculating the solubility of weak electrolytes as influenced by pH, an influence of solvents on the solubility of drugs

  • the combined effect of pH and solvents, distribution of solutes between immiscible solvents, effect of ionic dissociation and molecular association on the partition, extraction, a preservative action of weak acids in emulsions, drug action and distribution coefficient

Concepts of dissolution and diffusion


GPAT 2019 Organic Chemistry Syllabus:

General principles:

  • A brief review of classification & sources of organic compounds, sp3, sp2, sp hybridization, sigma & pi- bonds, bond lengths, bond angles & bond energies along with their significance in reactions should be carried out.

  • An overview of bond polarization, hydrogen bonds, inductive effects, resonance, and hyperconjugation be taken.

  • The concept of homolytic & heterolytic bond fission, acidity & basicity with different theories should be covered briefly.
  • Ease of formation & order of stabilities of electron deficient & electron rich species along with the reasons for the same should be covered.

  • Relationships between energy content, stability, reactivity & their importance in chemical reactions should be covered.

  • Calculations for determining empirical & molecular formula should be covered.

Different classes of compounds:

The following classes of compounds should be taught in detail with respect to their IUPAC / systematic nomenclature, industrial [wherever applicable] & laboratory methods of preparations, physical properties & chemical reactions with emphasis on reaction mechanisms [arrow based] & stereochemistry [wherever applicable].

  • Alkanes [including cyclic compounds]

  • Alkenes [including cyclic compounds]

  • Alkynes [only open-chain compounds]

  • Aliphatic hydroxyl compounds

  • Alkyl halides

  • Aldehydes & Ketones

  • Carboxylic acids

  • All functional derivatives of carboxylic acids. 

Protection & deprotection of groups:

  • Introduction to protection & deprotection of functional groups.

  • Two examples each for amino, hydroxyl, & carbonyl groups.

  • The significance of these in syntheses should be explained.

Aromaticity & aromatic chemistry:

  • The concept of aromaticity, Huckel's rule & its use in determining the aromatic/nonaromatic character of a compound.
  • A brief coverage of structure of benzene.

  • Detailed coverage of electrophilic & nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions.

  • Reactivity & orientation in these reactions.

  • Reactivity & orientation in mono- & disubstituted benzenes.

  • Benzyne mechanism.

Different aromatic classes of compounds:

The following classes of compounds with respect to their IUPAC / systematic nomenclature, industrial [wherever applicable] & laboratory methods of preparations, physical properties & chemical reactions with emphasis on reaction mechanisms [arrow based] & stereochemistry [wherever applicable].

  • Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

  • Phenolic compounds.

  • Aromatic & aliphatic amines.

  • Diazonium Salts.

  • Aromatic nitro- compounds, aryl halides, & others.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons:

  • Syntheses & reactions with mechanisms of bi & tricyclic fused carbocyclic rings like naphthalene, anthracene, & phenanthrene.

Carbonyl Chemistry:

Carbonyl chemistry involving group conversions & their reaction mechanisms along with stereochemistry wherever applicable.

  • Wolf-Kishner reduction & Huang-Minlong modification.

  • Reduction of arylsulfonyl hydrazine/hydrazones to alkanes.

  • Bamford Steven reaction. d. DCC Oxidation of alcohol.

  • Michael addition / 1,4-addition / conjugate addition.

  • Mannich condensation / reaction.

  • Robinson annulation.

  • Stobbe condensation.

  • Darzen's glycidic ester synthesis.

  • Beckmann rearrangement.

  • Baeyer Villiger rearrangement.

  • Curtius, Wolff, & Lossen rearrangements.

  • Willgerodt rearrangement.

  • Pinacol-pinacolone rearrangement.

  • Methylene transfer reactions. Use of diazomethane &  sulphur ylides in the same.

  • Mono- & dialkylations in 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds.

  • Formation & use of enol ethers, enol acetates & enamines as protective groups & in regiospecific alkylations.

Heterocyclic Chemistry:

  • IUPAC Nomenclature of heterocyclic rings [3-10 membered] containing O, S, & N atoms.

  • Nomenclature of above rings containing mono-, di -, & multiple [same or different] heteroatoms should also be covered.

  • Nomenclature of 2 & 3 fused rings containing mono-, di-, & multiple heteroatoms [same or different] should also be covered.

  • Syntheses & reactions of three to six-membered rings in detail. Syntheses of five & six-membered rings containing mono- or any di- heteroatoms [O, S, & N].

  • Syntheses of quinoline, isoquinoline, benzoxole, benzthiole, & benzazole, benzdiazole, benzoxazole, & benzthiazole. 

Bridged rings:

  • Bridged ring systems & their nomenclature.

Kinetic & thermodynamic control:

  • Kinetic & thermodynamic control of sulfonation, enolate anion formation & alkylation of enamine reactions.

Stereochemistry:

  • Stereochemistry

  • Chirality & asymmetry [introduction of the same to S, P, & N]. Definition & classification [different types of isomerisms].

  • Enantiomers, diastereomers.

  • Enantiomerism & diastereomerism.

  • Meso compounds & their optical activity.

  • Stereochemistry in acyclic compounds.

  • Newman projection formulae & their significance.

  • Conformational analysis of n-butane.

  • Absolute & relative configuration.

  • Assigning R & S configuration based on Cahn Ingold & Prelog system.

  • Racemic mixture- its definition & resolution.

  • Definitions of terms stereoselective, stereospecific, Enantiomeric excess & diastereomeric excess.

  • Stereochemistry in cyclic systems. Conformations of cyclohexane.  Cis-trans relationship in cyclohexane.

  • Prediction of stability of different conformations of 1, 2- 1,3- & 1,4- disubstituted cyclohexanes.

  • Effect of multiple substitutions on the stability of cyclohexane conformations.

  • Chair conformations of cis-, & trans-decalins, dihydrophenanthrenes, & a tetracyclic steroidal nucleus.

  • An introduction to atropisomerism.

Carbohydrates Carbohydrates:

  • Definition & classification. D & L nomenclature in sugars.

  • Different ways of drawing / representing a sugar molecule [including cyclic Structure], interconversion of these representations.

  • Anomers & epimers. Mutarotation.

  • Reactions of glucose.

  • Chain extension & chain reduction of a sugar.

Amino acids & proteins:

  • Amino acids & proteins.

  • Definition & classification.

  • D & L Amino acids, natural, essential, & non-essential amino acids.

  • Denaturation, Strecker, Gabriel phthalimide methods for the preparation of amino acids.

  • Peptide bond & its formation.

  • Two protective groups each, for -NH2 & -COOH functionalities during protein synthesis.

  • Sequencing of a protein by chemical & enzymatic methods.

Organometallic chemistry:

  • Organometallic chemistry [preparation & few reactions] of Cu & Boron.

Pericyclic reactions:

  • Pericyclic reactions.

  • The concept of HOMO & LUMO.
  • Drawing of HOMO & LUMO of 1, 3- butadiene, allylic cation, radical & anion, & 1, 3, 5-hexatriene. Meaning of conrotatory & disrotatory.

  • Allowed & disallowed thermal & photochemical reactions.

  • Introduction to sigmatropic, electrocyclic & (4n + 2) cycloaddition reactions.

  • Cope, oxy-cope [Claisen rearrangement], Diel's-Alder & retro Diel's Alder reaction.


GPAT 2019 Pharmaceutical Chemistry Syllabus:

Pharmaceutical Impurities:

  • Impurities in pharmaceutical substances, sources, types & effects of impurities.

  • Limit tests for heavy metals like lead, iron, arsenic, mercury & for chloride & sulfate as per Indian Pharmacopoeia [I. P.].

Monographs:

  • Monograph & its importance, various tests included in monographs as per I. P. A study of the following compounds with respect to their methods of preparation, assay, & pharmaceutical use sodium citrate, calcium carbonate, copper sulfate, light & heavy kaolin, ammonium chloride & ferrous gluconate.

Isotopes:

  • Isotopes- stable & radioactive, mode & rate of decay.

  • Types & measurement of radioactivity.

  • Radiopharmaceuticals & their diagnostic & therapeutic applications in pharmacy & medicine such as 125I, 32P, 51Cr, 60Co, 59Fe, 99Tc-M. Radiocontrast media, use of BaSO4 in medicine.

Therapeutic classes of drugs:

The following topics should be dealt with covering nomenclature [including stereochemical aspects], biological activity [including side & toxic effects ], mode of action, structure-activity relationship [where ever applicable] & syntheses of reasonable molecules.

  • Dentifrices, desensitizing agents, & anticaris agents.

  • General anaesthetics.

  • Local anaesthetics.

  • Antiseptics, disinfectants, sterilants, & astringents.

  • Purgatives, laxatives & antidiarrhoeal agents.

  • Diagnostic agents.

  • Coagulants, anticoagulants & plasma expanders.

Drug metabolism:

  • Introduction to drug metabolism based on the functional groups.

Various classes of therapeutic agents:

A detailed study of the following classes with respect to drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple & prototype molecules, drug metabolism, therapeutic uses & side effects. Drug resistance, wherever applicable, should be covered in respective classes of drugs.

  • Antiamoebic agents.

  • Anthelmintic agents.

  • Antibacterial sulpha drugs

  • Quinolone antibacterials.

  • Antimycobacterial drugs.

  • Antifungal agents. 

  • Antiviral agents including HIV & anti-HIV drugs.

  • Thyroid & antithyroid drugs.

  • Antiallergic agents.

  • Antiulcer agents & Proton Pump Inhibitors.

  • Hypoglycemic agents.

  • Antimalarials

Different classes of therapeutic drugs:

A detailed study of the following classes with respect to drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple & prototype molecules, drug metabolism, therapeutic uses & side effects. Drug resistance, wherever applicable, should be covered in respective classes of drugs.

  • Sedative-hypnotics

  • Antiepileptic agents.

  • Neuroleptics.

  • Anti-anxiety drugs.

  • Diuretics.

  • Antibiotics. Penicillins, cephalosporins & another beta- lactam antibiotics like imipenem & aztreonam. Beta-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanic acid & sulbactam. Chloramphenicol. Tetracyclines. Aminoglycoside antibiotics. Macrolide antibiotics. Lincomycins. Polypeptide antibiotics. Anticancer antibiotics.

  • Steroids. Corticosteroids [gluco- & mineralocorticoids] & anti-inflammatory steroids. Sex steroids. Male & female contraceptive agents. Anabolic steroids.

  • Anticancer agents.

Different classes of therapeutic drugs:

A detailed study of the following classes with respect to drug nomenclature, classification, physicochemical properties, mode of action [MOA], biosynthesis, structure-activity relationships [SAR], wherever applicable, synthesis of simple & prototype molecules, drug metabolism, therapeutic uses & side effects. Drug resistance, wherever applicable, in respective classes of drugs.

  • Narcotic [centrally acting] analgesics [analgetics].

  • Morphine & all its structural modifications [peripheral & nuclear].

  • Narcotic agonists & antagonists [dual & pure]. Non-narcotic analgesics [NSAIDS]

  • Difference between narcotic & nonnarcotic agents.

  • Adrenergic drugs. Neurotransmitters & their role.

  • General & specific adrenergic agonists & antagonists [up to alpha-2 & beta-2 only].

  • Cholinergic agents.

  • Muscarinic & nicotinic cholinergic agonists & antagonists [up to M2 & N2].

  • Neuronal [transmission] blockers.

  • Drugs used in neuromuscular disorders.

  • Drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  • Central & peripheral muscle relaxants.

  • Hypertensive, antihypertensive, & antianginal agents.

  • Eicosanoids. Prostaglandins, prostacyclins, & thromboxanes.

  • Their biochemical role, biosynthesis, & inhibitors.

  • Introduction to quantitative structure-activity relationship [QSAR]

  • Linear free energy relationship

  • Hammett's equation

  • Use of substituent constants such as π, σ, Es, & physicochemical parameters such as pKa, partition coefficient, Rm, chemical shifts, molar refractivity, simple & valance molecular connectivity to indicate electronic effects, lipophilic effects, & steric effects. Introduction, methodology, advantages & disadvantages/limitations of Hansch analysis.

  • Asymmetric synthesis. Chirality, chiral pool, sources of various naturally available chiral compounds. Eutomers, distomers, eudismic ratio. Enantioselectivity & enantiospecificity. Enantiomeric & diasteriomeric excess. Prochiral molecules.

  • Asymmetric synthesis of captopril & propranolol.

  • Combinatorial chemistry. Introduction & basic terminology. Databases & libraries. Solid phase synthesis technique. Types of supports & linkers, Wang, Rink, & dihydropyran derivatized linkers.

  • Reactions involving these linkers. Manual parallel & automated parallel synthesis. Houghton's tea bag method, micromanipulation, recursive deconvolution.

  • Mix & split method for the synthesis of tripeptides. Limitations of combinatorial synthesis. Introduction to throughput screening


GPAT 2019 Pharmaceutics Syllabus:

Pharmacy Profession:

  • Pharmacy as a career, evaluation of Pharmacy, earlier period middle to modern ages.

Introduction to Pharmaceuticals:

  • Definition, the importance of pharmaceuticals, areas concerned, scope of Pharmaceutics, history, and development of the profession of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical industry in India.

  • A brief review of present Indian Pharma. Industry in global perspective.

Introduction to dosage form:

  • Definition of the drug. New drug and dosage form.

  • The desirable properties of a dosage form, the need for dosage form.

  • Ideas about the available type of dosage forms and new drug delivery system.

Route of administration:

  • Route of administration with respect to dosage form design, physiological consideration for various routes of administration.

ADME:

  • Scheme of the fate of dosage form after its administration. Definition and introduction to

  • Definition and introduction to the concept of absorption, distribution, biotransformation, and elimination of the drug.

  • Introduction to bioavailability and various equivalences referring plasma time profile of the drug.

Sources of drug information:

  • Introduction to Pharmacopoeia with reference to IP, BP, USP and International Pharmacopeia. Study of structure/features (index) general notice and compartment of monographs of excipients, drug and drug product. Other sources. Textbooks, journals, internet (drug information system, online database, patient/ consumer information and non- print material.

  • Classification of information, primary, secondary and tertiary.

  • Nomenclature of the drug.

Allopathic dosage form:

  • Merits/ Demerits, importance, formulation development - vehicles/excipients with examples for the dosage form: liquid dosage form: monophasic liquid dosage form. Aromatic waters, syrup, elixir, linctus, lotion, liniment, glycerites, solutions, spirits, ENT preparations, mixtures, paints, mouthwash.

Crude extract:

  • Infusion, decoction, maceration, percolation, tincture, and extract. Methods of preparations of dry, soft and liquid extract.

Allergenic extract:

  • Types of allergens, preparation of extract, testing and standardization of extracts.

Ayurvedic system of medicine:

  • Theory, basic concept, diagnosis, various branches of treatment in Ayurveda, types of the drug formulation in Ayurveda and important Ayurvedic drugs and their uses, formulation of asavas, baristas, Vatika, churna, tails, ghruta, lep.

Homeopathic system of medicine:

  • Theory, basic concept, diagnosis, treatment, the source of homoeopathic medicines and important homoeopathic drugs and their uses.

Biological products:

  • Absorbable and non-absorbable material types, sutures and ligatures, processing, manufacturing, sterilization, packing, QC tests of materials like catgut and nylon.

GMP:

  • Introduction to GMP, QC, and QA.

Pharmaceutical:

  • Plant, location, layout Plant location and layout of an industry.

  • Various factors affecting locational aspects of chemical and pharmaceutical plants. A layout of plant building and importance of flow sheet, a difference between scientific process and technological process, a layout of various departments, equipment, and product layout v/s process layout.

Dosage Form Necessities and Additives:

  • Antioxidants, preservatives, colouring agents, flavouring agents and diluting agents, emulsifying agents, suspending agents, ointment bases, solvents, and others.

Powders:

  • Advantages and limitations of a dosage form, manufacturing procedure, and equipment, special care and problems in manufacturing powders, powders of IP, effervescent granules and salts.

Capsules:

  • Hard gelatin capsules, shell formulation, and manufacturing, capsule sizes, storage, filing, cleaning process general formulation contents and evaluation. Soft gelatin capsules, shell formulation, formulation contents, filing, sealing, and storage.

  • Microencapsulation, advantages, encapsulation materials, methods of microencapsulation, I.P. formulations

Tablets:

  • Types, ideal requirement, classification, granulation methods, general formulation, compression machines, different types of tooling’s, difficulties in tabletting, troubleshooting aspects, evaluation, sugar coating, compression coating, film coating, problems in tablet coatings and their troubleshooting aspects.

  • IP formulations.

Parenteral - product requiring sterile packaging:

  • Definition, types advantages and limitations, general formulation, vehicles, production procedure, production facilities, controls, tests, selected IP injections, sterile powders, implants, emulsions, suspensions.

Suspensions:

  • Formulation of deflocculated and flocculated suspension, manufacturing procedure, evaluation methods, IP suspensions.

Emulsions:

  • Types, emulsifying agents, general formulation, manufacturing procedure, evaluation methods, IP emulsions.

Suppositories:

  • Ideal requirements, bases, manufacturing procedure, evaluation methods, IP products.

Semisolids:

  • Definitions, bases, general formulation, manufacturing procedure, evaluation methods, IP products.

Liquids:

  • solutions, syrups, elixirs, spirits, aromatic water, liquid for external uses.

  • Definition, types, general formulation, manufacturing procedure, evaluation methods, IP products.

Pharmaceutical Aerosols:

  • Definition, propellants, general formulation, manufacturing and packaging methods, pharmaceutical applications. Impacts of propellants on the environment.

Ophthalmic preparations:

  • The requirement, formulation, methods of preparation, containers, evaluation, IP products.

Preformulations:

  • Consideration of Importance, physical properties, physical forms, particle size, crystal forms, bulk control, solubility, wetting

  • flow cohesiveness, compressibility, organoleptic properties and its effect on final product consideration of Chemical properties

  • hydrolysis, oxidation, racemization, polymerization, isomerization, decarboxylation, enzymatic decomposition

  • formulation additives, stabilizers, suspending and dispersing agents dyes, solid excipients etc. and its effect on quality of finished product.

Radio Pharmaceuticals:

  • Therapeutic uses, diagnostic uses, facilities and work area, preparation of radiopharmaceuticals, radiopharmaceuticals used in medicines.

Stability of formulated products:

  • Requirements, drug regulatory aspects, pharmaceutical products stability, shelf-life, overages, containers, closures.

Kinetic Principles and Stability Testing:

  • Reaction rate and order, acid-base catalysis, destabilization and accelerated stability testing.

Prolonged Action Pharmaceuticals:

  • Benefits, limitations, oral products, terminology, drug elimination rate, types and construction of implants products, product evaluation, parenteral products, absorption, and evaluation.

Novel Drug delivery system:

  • Critical fluid technology, transdermal drug delivery system, controlled drug delivery system, multiple emulsion, nanoparticles, targeted drug delivery system, aerosols, inhalation & new products reported etc

Cosmetics:

  • Formulation and preparation of dentifrices, hair creams, lipsticks, face powders, shaving preparations, skin creams, shampoos, hair dyes, depilatories, manicure preparations etc. Packaging Materials Role and features of Pharmaceutical packing materials.

  • Glass, plastic, rubber, metal, and paper as pharmaceutical packaging material.

  • General quality control of pharmaceutical packages. Primary, secondary and tertiary packaging materials.

  • Child resistant and pilfer-proof packaging.

GMP and Validation:

  • Concept and need for good manufacturing practice guidelines.

  • Elements of GMP covering controls of area and processes and product.

  • Regulations related to GMP.

  • Introduction to the validation process.

  • Types of validation.

  • The brief methodology of a process, equipment and instrument validation.

Pilot plant scales up techniques:

  • Need, organization and layout, scale-up techniques for solid and liquid dosage forms.

  • Technology transfer


GPAT 2019 Pharmacology Syllabus:

General Pharmacology:

  • Introduction to Pharmacology- Definition, scope, and source of drugs, dosage form, and routes of drug administration.

  • Pharmacodynamics-Mechanism of drug action, Receptors, classification and drug receptors interaction, the combined effect of drugs, factors modifying drug action.

  • Pharmacokinetics-Mechanism and principle of Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion of drugs.

  • Principles of basic and clinical pharmacokinetics. Pharmacogenetics. Adverse drug reactions.

  • Discovery and development of new drugs-Preclinical and clinical studies.

Pharmacology of peripheral nervous system:

  • Neurohumoral transmission (Autonomic and somatic).

  • Parasympathomimetics, Parasympatholytics, Sympathomimetics, Sympatholytics, Ganglionic stimulants, and blockers.

  • Neuromuscular blocking agents and skeletal muscle relaxants (peripheral).

  • Local anaesthetic agents.

  • Drugs used in Myasthenia Gravis.

Pharmacology of cardiovascular system:

  • Introduction of hemodynamic and Electrophysiology of heart.

  • Anti-hypertensive drugs, Anti-anginal agents, Anti-arrhythmic drugs.

  • Drugs used in congestive heart failure.

  • Anti-hyperlipidemic drugs.

  • Drugs used in the therapy of shock.

  • Haematinics, anticoagulants and hemostatic agents.

  • Fibrinolytic and antiplatelet drugs.

  • Blood and plasma volume expanders.

Drugs acting on urinary system:

  • Diuretics and anti-diuretics.

Drugs acting on the Respiratory system:

  • Anti-asthmatic drugs, Mucolytics and nasal decongestants, Anti-tussives and expectorants. Respiratory stimulants

Pharmacology of central nervous System:

  • Neurohumoral transmission in the C.N.S with special emphasis on Pharmacology of various neurotransmitters.

  • General anaesthetics.

  • Alcohols and disulfiram.

  • Sedatives, hypnotics and centrally acting muscle relaxants, Psychopharmacological agents: Antipsychotics, antidepressants, antianxiety agents, anti-many and hallucinogens.

  • Anti-epileptic drugs.

  • Anti-parkinsonism drugs. Nootropics. Narcotic analgesics, drug addiction, drug abuse, tolerance, and dependence.

Pharmacology of Endocrine system:

  • Basic concepts in endocrine pharmacology.

  • Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones.

  • Thyroid hormones and ant thyroid drugs, Parathormone, Calcitonin, and vitamin-D.

  • Insulin, oral hypoglycemic agents, and glucagon. ACTH and corticosteroids.

  • Androgens and anabolic steroids. Estrogens, progesterone and oral contraceptives.

  • Drugs acting on the uterus.

Chemotherapy:

  • General principals of chemotherapy. Sulphonamides and co-trimoxazole. Antibiotics- Penicillins, cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, Macrolides, quinolines and fluoroquinolones, quinolones.

  • Tetracyclines.

  • Aminoglycosides and miscellaneous antibiotics.

  • Chemotherapy of tuberculosis, leprosy, fungal diseases, viral diseases, AIDS, protozoal diseases, worm infections, urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases.

  • Chemotherapy of malignancy.

Autacoids and their Antagonists:

  • Histamine, 5-HT and their antagonists. Prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. pentagastrin, cholecystokinin, angiotensin, bradykinin and substance P. Analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and anti-gout drugs.

Pharmacology of drug acting on the gastrointestinal tract:

  • Antacids, anti-secretary and antiulcer drugs. Laxatives and antidiarrheal drugs. Appetite stimulants and suppressants. Digestants and carminatives. Emetics and antiemetics.

Chronopharmacology:

  • Definition of rhythm and cycles. Biological clock and their significance leading to chronotherapy.

Immunopharmacology:

  • Immunostimulants and immunosuppressants.

Chemotherapy of malignant diseases:

  • A basic principle of chemotherapy. Drugs used in cancer chemotherapy.

Peptides and proteins as mediators:

  • General Principal of peptide pharmacology Biosynthesis and regulation of peptides Peptide Antagonists. Protein and peptide as drugs.

Nitric Oxide:

  • Biosynthesis of nitric oxide and its physiological role. Therapeutic use of nitric oxide and nitric oxide donors. The clinical condition in which nitric oxide may play a part.

Vitamins & Minerals:

  • Vitamin deficiency diseases and their management. Role of minerals in health & diseases.

Principles of toxicology:

  • Definition of poison. General principles of treatment of Poisoning.

  • Treatment of poisoning due to Heavy metals, insecticides, opioids and other addict forming drugs. Study of acute, sub-acute and chronic toxicity as per OECD guidelines.

  • Genotoxicity, Carcinogenicity, teratogenicity and mutagenicity studies.


GPAT 2019 Pharmacognosy Syllabus:

Introductory Pharmacognosy:

Historical development, modern concept, and scope of Pharmacognosy. The significance of Pharmacognosy in various systems of medicine practised in India viz: Ayurveda, Unani, Homeopathic, and Siddha.

Classification of crude drugs:

  • Based on alphabetical, morphological, pharmacological, chemical, taxonomical and chemotaxonomic methods

  • organized and unorganized drugs: official and unofficial drugs.

Sources of crude drugs:

  • Plants, animals and minerals

  • marine products

  • plant tissue culture.

Factors influencing the quality of crude drugs:

  • Exogenous factors: temperature, rainfall, daylight, altitude, and soil

  • Endogenous factors: Mutation, polyploidy, & hybridization in medicinal plants

  • Production factors including collection, drying, storage and transport methods

  • Study of morphological and histological characters of crude drugs, Ergastic cell inclusions, anatomical structures of both monocot and dicot stems, leaves and roots: barks, fruits, and seeds.

Techniques in microscopy:

  • Details of mountants

  • clearing agents

  • them microscopic (microchemical) reagents.

Introduction to phytoconstituents:

  • Definition, classification

  • chemical tests and pharmaceutical importance of carbohydrates and their derivatives

  • fats and proteins, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, tannins, resins, lipids and volatile oils.

Principles of plant classification:

  • Diagnostic features and medicinal significance of important plants with special reference to: Algae: Rhodophyceae (Agar, Alginic acid, Diatoms)

  • Fungi: Ergot, Yeast and penicillium

  • Gymnosperm: Pinaceae (Turpentine, Colophony), Gnetaceae (Ephedra)

  • Angiosperm: Apocynaceae, Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, Solanaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Leguminosae, Papaveraceae, Acanthaceae and Apiaceae.

  • Pteridophytes: Male fern.

Pharmaceutical aids:

  • Biological sources, chemical constituents, adulterants, and uses of Starches, acacia gum, tragacanth, sterculia, guar gum, pectin, arachis oil, castor oil, sesame oil, cottonseed oil, olive oil, cotton, silk, wool, regenerated fibres, asbestos, kaolin, prepared chalk, kieselguhr.

Animal products:

  • Biological sources, chemical constituents

  • adulterants and uses of Shellac, cochineal, cantharides, woolfat, lard, beeswax, honey, musk, lanolin, gelatin.

Plant products:

  • Introduction to plant bitters

  • sweeteners, nutraceuticals

  • cosmeceuticals and photosensitizing agents.

Toxic drugs:

  • Study of allergens

  • hallucinogens, narcotics

  • toxic mushrooms

Enzymes:

  • Biological sources, preparation characters and uses of diastase, papain bromelain, ficin, yeast, pancreatin, urokinase, pepsin, trypsin, penicillinase, hyaluronidase, and streptokinase.

Natural pesticides and insecticides:

  • Introduction to herbicides, fungicides fumigants and rodenticides tobacco, pyrethrum, & neem.

Adulteration and evaluation of crude drugs:

  • Different methods of adulteration: Evaluation of drugs by organoleptic microscopic, physical, chemical and biological methods

  • Deterioration of herbal drugs by insects

Quantitative microscopy:

  • Definition and determination of stomatal index, stomatal number, palisade ratio

  • vein islet number, vein termination number, lycopodium spore method

  • Micrometers and measurement of microscopic characters.

Biogenetic pathways:

  • Formation of primary and secondary metabolites

  • Study of Calvin cycle, TCA cycle, Shikimic acid pathway, Embden-Mayerhoff pathway, acetate hypothesis, isoprenoid pathway

  • Biosynthesis of carbohydrates, lipids and volatile oils.

Carbohydrates & lipids:

  • Biological sources, salient morphological features, chemical constituents use of Plantago, bael, chaulmoogra oil, neem oil, shark liver oil, cod liver oil, guggul lipids.

Tannins:

  • Biological sources, morphology, chemical constituents, chemical test uses of Pale catechu, black catechu, nutgalls, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia arjuna.

Volatile oils:

  • Biological sources, morphology, chemical constituents, adulterants uses of: Black pepper, turpentine, mentha, coriander, cardamom, cinnamon, cassia, lemon peel, orange peel, lemon grass, citronella, cumin, caraway, dill, spearmint, clove, anise, star anise, fennel, nutmeg, eucalyptus, chenopodium, ajowan, sandal wood.

Resinous drugs:

  • Classification, formation, sources, chemical constituents, identification test adulterants and uses of benzoin, Peru balsam, tolu balsam, colophony, myrrh, asafoetida, jalap, colocynth, ginger, turmeric, capsicum, cannabis, podophyllum.

Glycosides:

  • Nature and classification

  • Biological sources, morphology, chemical constituents, adulterants and uses of Digitalis, strophanthus, squill, Thevetia, oleander, cascara, aloe, rhubarb, senna, quassia, Dioscorea, quillaia, Glycyrrhiza, ginseng, gentian, wild cherry, Withania, bitter almond

  • Biosynthesis of cardiac and anthraquinone glycosides

Alkaloids:

  • Nature, classification, biological sources, morphology, chemical constituents, adulterants
  • uses of: Areca nut, belladonna, hyoscyamus, stramonium, Duboise, coca, coffee, tea, cinchona, opium, ipecac, nux vomica, ergot, rauwolfia, vinca, Kurchi, ephedra, colchicum, Busacca, pilocarpus, aconite, Solanum xanthocarpum
  • Biosynthesis of tropane, cinchona and opium alkaloids.

Herbarium:

Preparation of herbarium sheets and their importance in authentication of plants.

Extraction and Isolation Techniques:

  • General methods used for the extraction, isolation, and identification of alkaloids, lipids, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, volatile oils and resins

  • Application of column, paper, and thin layer chromatographic techniques, for the isolation of phytopharmaceuticals.

Phytopharmaceuticals:

  • Isolation, identification, and estimation of caffeine, eugenol, digoxin, piperine, tannic acid, diosgenin, hesperidin, berberine, calcium sennosides, rutin, glycyrrhizin, menthol, ephedrine, quinine, andrographolides and Guggul lipids.

Quality control and Standardization of herbal drugs:

  • Quality control of herbal drugs as per WHO, AYUSH and Pharmacopoeial guidelinesExtractive values, ash values, chromatographic techniques (TLC, HPTLC, and HPLC) for determination of chromatographic markers

  • Determination of heavy metals, insecticides, pesticides and microbial load in herbal preparations.

Herbal formulations:

  • Principals involved in Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, Chinese and Homeopathic systems of medicines

  • Preparation of Ayurvedic formulations like aristas, asava, Chitika, Italia, churna,avaleha,ghrita, and bhasmas: Unani formulations likemajooms, Safoofs.

  • Determination of alcohol contents in baristas & asavas.

Worldwide trade in crude drugs and volatile oils:

Study of drugs having high commercial value and their regulations pertaining to trade.

Plant Biotechnology:

  • History and scope of plant tissue culture, growth media, plant growth regulators: callus and suspension culture, Biotransformation, immobilization, hairy root culture. Transgenic plants and their applications, plant tissue culture as the source of secondary metabolites.

Herbal cosmetics:

Importance of herbals as shampoos (soapnut), conditioners and hair darkeners, (amla, henna, hibiscus, tea), skin care (aloe, turmeric, lemon peel, vetiver).

Traditional herbal drugs:

  • Common names, sources, morphology, active constituents and uses (traditional, folklore), pharmacological clinical uses of: punarnava (Boerhaviadiffusa), shankhpushpi (Convolvulus microphylla), lehsun (Allium sativum), guggul (Commiphora mukul), kalmegh (Andrographis peniculata), tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), valerian (Valerian officinalis), artemisia (Artemisia annua), chirata (Swertia chirata), ashoka (Saraca indica).

Plants based industries and research institutes in India:

Knowledge about the herbal products being manufactured by premier herbal industries and thrust area of the institutes involved in plant research.

Patents:

Indian and International patent laws, proposed amendments as applicable to herbal/natural products and processes: Intellectual Property Rights with special reference to phytoconstituents


GPAT 2019 Results

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Discussion Forum



Q
GPAT 2017 Pharmaceutics syllabus

What is the syllabus for the Pharmaceutics section in the GPAT exam?

Asked By: Fanny Mathew,

A
Answer By: GetmyuniEnterprise

The syllabus for the Pharmaceutics section in the GPAT exam is as below: -

  • Physical Pharmacy
  • Microbiology in Pharmacy
  • Pharmaceutical jurisprudence & Ethics
  • Introduction to Dispensing and Community Pharmacy
  • The Importance of unit operations in manufacturing
  • Stoichiometry
  • Dosages Forms, designing & evaluation

Q
GPAT Pharmacognosy main topics

What are the topics under Pharmacognosy for the GPAT exam?

Asked By: Arvind Subramani,

A
Answer By: GetmyuniEnterprise

The main topics under Pharmacognosy for the GPAT exam are as follows: -

  • Sources of Drugs
  • Carbohydrates
  • Tannins
  • Volatile Oils
  • Fibers
  • Glycoside Containing Drugs
  • Alkaloid Containing Drugs
  • Studies of Traditional Drugs.

Q
What are the topics under pharmacology?

I wanted to know the topics needed to be covered under Pharmacology.

Asked By: Jyothi Mish,

A
Answer By: GetmyuniEnterprise

Topics under Pharmacology include:

  • Immunopathophysiology
  • Pathophysiology of Common Diseases
  • Fundamentals of general pharmacology
  • Basic Concepts of Pharmacotherapy

Q
Where can i find the Model papers for GPAT?

i wanted to refer the model papers for the GPAT India 2017 examination , where can i find them?

Asked By: Naina Kumar,

A
Answer By: GetmyuniEnterprise

You can find the Model papers for the GPAT examination at www.gpatindia.com


Q
Syllabus for GPAT

What are the topics that I need to prepare for GPAT?

Asked By: Ruchika Tiwari,

A
Answer By: GetmyuniEnterprise

The GPAT 2017 Syllabus is composed of four major sections namely:

  • Pharmaceutics
  • Pharmaceutical Chemistry
  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacognosy

Topics under Pharmaceutics include:

  • Physical Pharmacy
  • Microbiology in Pharmacy
  • Pharmaceutical jurisprudence & Ethics
  • Introduction to Dispensing and Community Pharmacy
  • The Importance of unit operations in manufacturing
  • Stoichiometry
  • Dosages Forms, designing & evaluation

Topics under Pharmaceutics Pharmaceutical Chemistry include:

  • Inorganic Pharmaceutical & medicinal chemistry
  • Physical Chemistry and its importance in pharmacy
  • Organic Chemistry and its importance in pharmacy
  • Biochemistry
  • Medicinal Chemistry
  • Pharmaceutical Analysis

Topics under Pharmacology include:

  • Immunopathophysiology
  • Pathophysiology of Common Diseases
  • Fundamentals of general pharmacology
  • Basic Concepts of Pharmacotherapy

Topics under Pharmacognosy include:

  • Sources of Drugs
  • Carbohydrates
  • Tannins
  • Volatile Oils
  • Fibers
  • Glycoside Containing Drugs
  • Alkaloid Containing Drugs
  • Studies of Traditional Drugs

Topics under General Techniques include:

  • General Techniques of Biosynthetic Studies
  • Basic Metabolic Pathways/Biogenesis.
  • Terpenes
  • Glycosides
  • Alkaloids
  • The role of plant-based drugs on the National economy
  • Applications of plant tissue culture in pharmacognosy
  • Marine pharmacognosy

Q
Syllabus for General Technique

What is the GPAT 2017 syllabus for General Technique?

Asked By: Prithvi Kapoor,

A
Answer By: GetmyuniEnterprise

Given below is the GMAT 2017 syllabus for General Technique:

  • General Techniques of Biosynthetic Studies
  • Basic Metabolic Pathways/Biogenesis.
  • Terpenes
  • Glycosides
  • Alkaloids
  • The role of plant-based drugs on the National economy
  • Applications of plant tissue culture in pharmacognosy
  • Marine pharmacognosy

Q
Topics under Pharmacology

What are the topics covered under Pharmacology?

Asked By: Siddharta A,

A
Answer By: GetmyuniEnterprise

Following topics will be covered under Pharmacology:

  • Immunopathophysiology
  • Pathophysiology of Common Diseases
  • Fundamentals of general pharmacology
  • Basic Concepts of Pharmacotherapy

Q
Updated syllabus

Where can I get the updated syllabus for the exam ?

Asked By: Sita GN,

A
Answer By: GetmyuniEnterprise

The updated syllabus will be made available on the official website.



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