MBBS Subjects and Syllabus: Phase Wise, Core Medical Subjects, Electives

Duration: 5 Years 5 Months
Avg Fees: ₹10K - 15 LPA
Sakshi Chaudhary
Sakshi Chaudhary

Updated on - Jan 23, 2024

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The MBBS Syllabus in India, set by the National Medical Commission (NMC), is categorized into three phases: Pre-Clinical, Para-Clinical, and Clinical Phases through theory and clinical-based teaching methodologies. MBBS Syllabus is a vast and comprehensive curriculum that covers a wide range of medical topics such as Anatomy, Physiology, Biochemistry, Community Medicine, Psychiatry, Pharmacology, Microbiology, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, etc. 

The syllabus has 19 MBBS subjects in total which are divided into 3 subjects during the first year, 7 subjects for the second year, 3 subjects for the third year, and 6 subjects for the final year followed by 6 months of internship. MBBS course is divided into 9 semesters, with each semester having 6 months. The course contains 120 days of teaching every semester.

Table of Content

MBBS Subjects Year Wise

The 19 MBBS subjects cover a wide range of medical topics, from the foundational sciences of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry to clinical subjects like medicine, surgery, and pediatrics. The course is broken down into 10 compulsory subjects and 9 electives. At the end of the MBBS course, students have a one-year-long residency program which is compulsory for MBBS students. 

The following are the detailed MBBS subjects for each year:

MBBS 1st Year Subjects

The 1st year MBBS subjects focus on the basic foundation and theories such as human anatomy and physiology, Biochemistry, Pharmacology, Molecular Biology, etc. Listed below are the subjects and topics covered under MBBS first year syllabus:

Subjects Topics Covered
Anatomy Gross Anatomy, Micro Anatomy, Embryology, Genetics, Neuro Anatomy, Genito Urinary System, Endocrine System, Special Sensory Organs
Biochemistry Biological Cells, Biomolecules, Enzymes, Metabolic Pathways, Food Assimilation and Nutrition, Immunology
Physiology General Physiology, Nerve, Muscle, Blood, Environmental Physiology, Neuro Physiology, Sensory Systems

MBBS 2nd Year Subjects

The 2nd year MBBS subjects focus on topics such as pathology, forensic medicine, community medicine, toxicology, etc. Listed below are the subjects and the topics covered in the 2nd year MBBS syllabus:

Subjects Topics Covered
Microbiology Bacteriology, Virology, Bacterial Staining and Cultivation, Common Test for bacterial Identification, Parasitology
Forensic Medicine and Toxicology Forensic Pathology, Forensic Medicine, Medical Jurisprudence, Forensic Psychiatry, Clinical Forensic Science
Pathology General Pathology, Amyloidosis and Calcification, Cell Injury, Inflammation and Repair, Circulatory Disturbances, Growth Disturbances and Neoplasia
Pharmacology Autonomic nervous system & Peripheral nervous system, General Pharmacology, Autacoids, Central Nervous System, Cardiovascular System
Community Medicine Behavioural Science, Health Education, Biostatistics, Environment, Epidemiology, Nutrition, Maternal and Child Health
Surgery and Allied Subjects Skin, Head and Neck, Arteries, Veins, Breast, Stomach and Esophagus, Colon and Rectum, Small Intestine
Clinical Postings -

MBBS 3rd Year Subjects

The MBBS 3rd year subjects focus on topics such as Anesthesiology, Community Medicine, Preoperative Evaluation, Critical Care, etc. Listed below are MBBS 3rd-year subjects and the topics covered:

Subjects Topics Covered
Ophthalmology  Diabetic Retinopathy,  Visual acuity, pupillary pathways & cranial nerve palsies, Optic Nerve Lesions, Incomitant strabismus, Traumatic and Non-Traumatic Emergencies
Orthopaedics Pediatric orthopaedics, Orthopaedic Oncology, Management of Trauma, Sports Medicine, Disorders of Spine, Orthopedic Neurology
Community Medicine Rehabilitation, Epidemiology of common communicable diseases, National Health Programs, Occupational Health, Health Administration, Health Economics

MBBS Final Year Subjects

The MBBS 4th year subjects cover topics such as Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dermatology, Bleeding Disorders, Emergency medicine, Neonatal Care, etc. Listed below are the MBBS final year subjects and the topics covered:

Subjects Topics Covered
General Medicine Clinical Pharmacology, Nutritional and metabolic disorders, Water, electrolyte and acid-base imbalance, Critical Care Medicine, Medical Psychiatry
Dermatology and Venerology Ineffective dermatoses, Infestations,  Vesiculobullous diseases, Drug Eruptions, Allergic Disorders, Hereditary disorders
Obstetrics and Gynecology Applied anatomy of the genito-urinary system,  Development, structure & function of the placenta, umbilical cord & amniotic fluid, Anatomy of the Fetus, Fetal Growth, Rhesus Negative Pregnancy
Otorhinolaryngology  Introduction to Ear, Nose, Throat and Head & Neck Surgery,  Epistaxis, Benign and malignant tumours of the maxilla, Lesions of Nasal Septal Perforations
Psychiatry Classification of Psychiatric disorders,  Aetiology of Psychiatric disorders, Bipolar Disorders,  Schizophrenia, Depression, Anxiety Neurosis
Pediatrics Neonatal history, Examination of Newborn, Pediatrics Surgical Problems, Therapeutics, Pediatric Emergencies

Also, Check: Scope & Salary for MBBS graduates in India

MBBS Syllabus: Phase Wise MBBS Subjects

The NMC MBBS syllabus is divided into 3 phases. The whole syllabus is divided into 9 semesters, each semester lasting for 6 months. This course division will also include one year of rational internship for students. Refer to the following table for a better understanding of the division of the MBBS syllabus:

Phase Semesters Subjects covered

Pre-Clinical Phase

Semester 1 - 2




Para-Clinical Phase

Semester 3 - 5


Forensic Medicine


Community Medicine

Clinical Postings Inwards


Clinical Phase Semester 6 - 9


Dermatology and Venereology


Obstetrics and Gynaecology





MBBS Syllabus Phase-Wise details

MBBS syllabus has three phases as prescribed by NMC; Pre-Clinical, Para-Clinical, and Clinical. The subjects focusing on the phases are such as anatomy, biochemistry, microbiology, physiology, and so on. The details of the MBBS Syllabus phases are given below: 

MBBS Pre-Clinical Phase

The Preclinical phase is the first phase of the MBBS course. 

  • This phase consists of 2 semesters consisting of 6 months each.
  • It includes the study of subjects like anatomy, biochemistry, etc.
  • Preclinical phases consist of practicals on gross anatomy, microanatomy, genetics, etc.

MBBS Para-Clinical Phase 

The para-clinical phase is the second phase of MBBS that starts in the second year. 

  • This phase consists of 3 semesters: the 3rd, 4th, and 5th semesters, all consisting of 6 months each.
  • The MBBS subjects included in these semesters are Microbiology, pathology, toxicology, etc.
  • During this phase, students are introduced to community medicines.
  • During this phase, students are authorized with the responsibilities of OPD in different wards of the hospital.

MBBS Clinical Phase 

The third phase of MBBS is also the continuation of phase II, as follows:

  • In this phase, students continue to study community medicines.
  • In this phase, they learn allied MBBS and medical subjects like dermatology, Psychiatry, Obstetrics & Gynaecology, etc.
  • Students also learn about surgery and allied fields.
  • The clinical posting of students continues in this phase.
MBBS Admission Process MBBS Fees in India

MBBS Specialisations

MBBS itself does not have formal specializations within the degree program. However, after completing MBBS, doctors have the option to pursue various specializations or postgraduate degrees in specific medical fields. Common specializations that doctors can pursue in India include::

  1. General Medicine
  2. General Surgery
  3. Paediatrics
  4. Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  5. Dermatology
  6. Ophthalmology
  7. Orthopaedics
  8. ENT
  9. Psychiatry
  10. Anesthesiology
  11. Plastic Surgery
  12. Neuro Surgery
  13. Cardio-Thoracic surgery
  14. Continuous Urinary surgery
  15. Pediatric Surgery
  16. Gastroenterology
  17. Endocrinology
  18. Clinical Haematology
  19. Nephrology
  20. Cardiology
  21. Immunology
  22. Craniologist
  23. Pathologist

19 Subjects of MBBS Course

The curriculum includes different types of subjects in MBBS in all areas. NMC prescribes the whole MBBS syllabus, and the institutions work accordingly with the prescribed syllabus. Following are the 19 subjects in MBBS course:

  1. Anatomy
  2. Biochemistry
  3. Physiology
  4. Pathology
  5. Microbiology
  6. Pharmacology
  7. Forensic Medicine and Toxicology
  8. Community Medicine
  9. Medicine
  10. Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  11. Paediatrics
  12. Psychiatry
  13. Anesthesiology
  14. Dermatology and Venereology
  15. Ophthalmology
  16. Orthopaedics
  17. ENT (Ear, Nose, and Throat)
  18. Clinical Postings
  19. OPD (Outpatient Department)

MBBS Syllabus: 12 Months Rotatory Internship 

MBBS course comprises six months to a one-year compulsory rational internship in any hospital or health care centre. During the internship period, students will be able to observe and practice clinical procedures and medical conditions. 

The concerned department of medical will be providing the logbook for each student. The posting will be changed during intervals and will be notified by the department. The posting period is specified in the below table:

Specialty Duration
Medicine 1.5 months
Surgery 1.5 months
Rural 3-month
Paediatrics 1-month
Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1 month
Casualty 1-month
Anaesthesiology 15 days
Ophthalmology 15 days
Elective 2 months
Total 12 months

MBBS Course Structure

The MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery) course structure is designed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of medical sciences, clinical skills, and practical experiences. The structure may vary slightly among different medical universities, but the following is a general overview of the typical MBBS course structure:

  • Five and half years
  • Three phases: Pre-Clinical, Para-Clinical, and Clinical
  • Specialisations
  • 10 Compulsory Subjects
  • 9 Elective Subjects
  • Projects and Dissertation
  • Practical Sessions
  • Rotatory Internship And Workshops
  • Conferences
  • Exams
MBBS Entrance Exams Cheapest MBBS Colleges in India

MBBS Teaching Methodology and Techniques

The course structure is intended to familiarise students with the fundamentals of surgery through hands-on experience assisting during major surgeries. Below mentioned are MBBS teaching methodologies and techniques:

  • Case Studies
  • Paper Presentation on Conferences
  • Practical Sessions
  • Real-time Surgery Projects
  • Internships

MBBS Project Topics

The MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery) course is primarily project-based. Students may undertake research projects as part of their academic curriculum. The choice of project topics can vary based on the interests of the students and the available resources. Some of the MBBS Project topics are as follows:

  1. Epidemics versus Pandemics
  2. Child Health Care
  3. Medical Humanitarian Missions in the Developing World
  4. Homeopathic Medicines – The Placebo Effect
  5. Virus Infections – Causes and Treatment
  6. Nutritional and Metabolic Disorders
  7. Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Imbalance:
  8. Critical Care Medicine
  9. Dermatological Disorders and Treatments
  10. Psychiatric Disorders

MBBS Books

MBBS books are designed to give students a solid foundation in fundamental medical sciences. These books address topics like pathology, microbiology, biochemistry, anatomy, and physiology.  Students will be better able to comprehend and apply clinical knowledge in subsequent years of their medical study if they have a firm grasp of these core ideas.

To enhance their knowledge better on the concepts of medicine, students can refer to MBBS books by famous authors on various subjects. Given below are the MBBS Subject books:

MBBS Subjects MBBS Books Author
Anatomy Human Anatomy B. D. Chaurasia
Biochemistry Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry David.L.Nelson
Forensic Medicine The Essentials of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology Dr. KSN Reddy
Pharmacology Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Bertram G. Katzung
Pathology Textbook of Pathology Harsh Mohan
Anaesthesiology Fundamentals of Anaesthesia Colin Pinnock

MBBS Fee Structure


How many subjects are there in 1st year MBBS?

MBBS first-year syllabus consists of two semesters and three subjects.

How many semesters are there in MBBS?

MBBS syllabus is divided into nine semesters.

What is taught in MBBS 4th year?

MBBS 4th year syllabus focuses on topics such as paediatrics, neonatal care, obstetrics and gynaecology, critical care, emergency medicine, psychiatry, etc.

Does MBBS have maths?

No, MBBS syllabus does not have mathematics as it focuses on core subjects such as human anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, etc.

How many phases are there in MBBS?

MBBS syllabus is categorized into three phases Pre-Clinical, Para-Clinical, and Clinical.

What is a good percentage in MBBS?

The candidate must atleast secure 50% of the aggregate marks with a 60:40 ratio in theory and practical exams

Is MBBS tougher than NEET?

No, NEET is considered comparatively tougher as there is high competition in securing admission into the top colleges and the questions are unpredictable at times.

Is 1 year internship compulsory for MBBS?

Yes, in most of the universities and colleges in India one year internship is compulsory for MBBS students and it is part of the syllabus

What is the highest stipend for an MBBS intern?

MBBS interns from central government institutes will earn a monthly stipend of INR 30,070 and the stipend ranges from INR 10,000 to 35,000 in private institutions

Which is the easiest field after MBBS?

The most popular fields after MBBS are Biotechnology, Pharmaceuticals, Paramedical, etc.

What are the important MBBS 1st year Books?

Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine by K.Park, Basic and Clinical Pharmacology by Ph.D. Katzung, Bertram G., M.D. and Ph.D. Vanderah, Todd W, Handbook of General Anatomy by BD Chaurasia, Human Histology by Inderbir Singh are some of the important MBBS first year books.