## Bihar Polytechnic Syllabus 2019

### Bihar Polytechnic DCECE 2019 Syllabus

The topics listed below can help the candidates prepare for the exam. Candidates can visit **Bihar Polytechnic DCECE 2019 Exam Pattern **to understand how these subjects will be divided into the question paper.

#### Bihar Polytechnic 2019 Physics Syllabus

**Physics World and Measurement**

Scope and Excitement, Technology and Society, Need for Measurement, Dimensional Analysis, Dimensions of Physical Quantities, Significant Figures, Regular and Irregular errors, System of Units, S.I. Units, Accuracy, and Precision of Measuring Instruments, Fundamental and Derived Units, Length, Mass, and Time Measurements, Nature of Physical Laws.

**Kinematics**

Motion in Straight line, Position-time graph, Speed and velocity, Uniform and non-uniform Motion, Frame of reference, Velocity time and Position time graphs, Average speed and Instantaneous Velocity, Elementary concepts of Differentiation and Integration for describing motion, Relations for Uniformly Accelerated Motion (Graphical Treatment).

Scalar and Vector Quantities: Equality of Vectors, Position and Displacement Vectors, General vectors and Notation, Relative Velocity, Addition and Subtraction of Vectors, Multiplication of Vectors by Real Numbers.

Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion. Unit vector, Resolution of a vector in plane-rectangular components.

Motion in a plane, Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration - projectile motion, uniform circular motion.

**Laws of Motion**

Inertia, Momentum, Newton's Second law of motion, Newton's law of motion, Intuitive concept force, Impulse, Law of Conservation of Linear Momentum and its applications.

Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, Equilibrium of concurrent forces, Dynamics of Uniform circular motion, Centripetal force.

**Work, Energy, and Power**

The notion of potential energy, Kinetic energy, Scalar product of Vector done by a constant force, Work-energy theorem, Power.

Non-conservative forces, Conservative forces, Notion of potential energy, Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimension, potential energy of a spring, conservation of mechanical energy (Kinetic and Potential Energies).

**Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body**

Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies, Vector product of Vectors, Torque Angular Momentum, Momentum of Force, Conservation of angular momentum, Rigid body rotation, Equation of rotation motions, Radius of gyration, Moment of inertia, Values of M.I for simple geometrical objects (no derivation), Statement of parallel and Perpendicular axes theorems and its applications.

**Gravitation**

The universal law of gravitation, gravitational potential energy, Kepler's laws of planetary motion, the acceleration due to gravity, Variation with altitude and depth, Gravitational potential, Escape velocity, geostationary satellites, orbital velocity of the satellite.

**Properties of Bulk Matter**

Young's modulus, Shear modulus of rigidity, Bulk Modulus, Stress-strain relationship, Deformation, Elastic behaviour, effects of gravity of fluid pressure, Pressure due to fluid column, Viscosity, Reynold's number, Bernoulli's theorem, Its applications, Stoke's law terminal velocity, Streamline and turbulent fellow, angle of contact, application of surface tension, angle of contact, surface energy and surface tension, ideas to drop bubbles and capillary rise.

**Heat and Thermodynamics**

Temperature, heat, specific heat capacity, thermal expansion, change of state, latent heat, calorimetry, heat transfer - thermal conductivity, conduction, convection and radiation, Newton's law of cooling. First law of thermodynamics, Second law of thermodynamics, heat engines and refrigerator, reversible and irreversible processes, Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (Zeroth law of thermodynamics).

**Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic theory**

Avogadro's number, Concept of mean free path, Capacities of gases, Degrees of freedom, Assumptions, Concept of pressure, Kinetic energy and temperature, rms speed of gas molecules, Concept of pressure.

**Oscillations and Waves**

Periodic motion - period, frequency, displacement as a function of time, periodic functions, simple harmonic motion (SHM) and its equation, phase, oscillation of a spring - restoring force and force constant energy in SHM - Kinetic and potential energies, simple pendulum - derivation of expression for its time period) free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance.

Wave motion, Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion, Displacement relation for progressive waves, principle of superposition of waves, the reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect.

**Electrostatics**

Electric Charge; Conservation of charge, Coulomb's law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field; electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole;

torque on a dipole in uniform electric field.

Electric flux, statement of Gauss's theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).

Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.

Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor. Van de Graaff generator.

**Current Electricity**

Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm's law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.

Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchhoff's laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge. Potentiometer - principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

**Magnetic effects of current & Magnetism**

Concept of magnetic field, Oersted's experiment. Biot - Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere's law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field, moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torqueon a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in an uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia- and ferro- magnetic substances, with examples.

Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets. Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating currents Electromagnetic induction; Faraday's law, induced emf and current; Lenz's Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance. Need for displacement current.

Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattless current, AC generator and transformer, Electromagnetic Waves, Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.

Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

**Optics**

Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula, Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens-maker's formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.

Scattering of light-blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset. Optical instruments; Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia, hypermetropia, presbyopia and astigmatism) using lenses. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

Wave optics: wave front and Huygens' principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens' principle. Interference, Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light.

Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarised light; Brewster's law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.

**Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation**

Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard's observations; Einstein's photoelectric equation-particle nature of light. Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davission-Germer experiment. Atoms and Nuclei, Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford's model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.

Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones, Radioactivity-alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission and fusion.

**Electronic Devices**

Semiconductors; semiconductor diode - I-V characterstics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characterstics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch.

**Communication Systems**

Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation. Need for modulation. Production and detection of an amplitude-modulated wave.