# Karnataka Syllabus 2021

The board of Karnataka published the board exam syllabus on its official website. The Karnataka board has announced a 30% cut in their syllabus for the class 10th and 12th courses to compensate for the academic loss incurred due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Candidates can visit the website and download the syllabus for their subjects. The syllabus helps the candidates to gain confidence and also complete the portions on time. It increases the accuracy of the candidates. The Karnataka board 10th syllabus 2021 is available on the official website kseeb.kar.nic.in and the Karnataka 2nd PUC syllabus 2021 on pue.kar.nic.in

The step by step procedure to download the SSLC syllabus is given below:

Step 1:  Visit the official website - kseeb.kar.nic.in

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Candidates have to follow a step by step procedure to download the Karnataka syllabus from the official website. The steps are mentioned below:

Step 1: Visit the official website - pue.kar.nic.in

Step 2: Click on the "Syllabus & Textbook" option on the home screen.

Step 3: Click on the link to the required subject.

Step 4: Download the pdf and save it to refer to the exams.

### Karnataka Syllabus 2021 Highlights

 Conducting authority Karnataka Secondary Education Examination Board (KSEEB), Karnataka Category Syllabus Mode of reference Online SSLC Official website sslc.karnataka.gov.in PUC Official Website pue.kar.nic.in

### Karnataka SSLC Syllabus for Maths 2021

 Mathematics Topics Number System Euclid’s division lemma, Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic – statements after reviewing work done earlier and after illustrating and motivating through examples, Proofs of results – irrationality of √2, √3, √5, decimal expansions of rational numbers in terms of terminating/non-terminating recurring decimals. Algebra Zeros of a polynomial. The relationship between zeros and coefficients of quadratic polynomials. Statement and simple problems on the division algorithm for polynomials with real coefficients. Pair of linear equations in two variables and their graphical solution. Geometric representation of different possibilities of solutions/inconsistency. Algebraic conditions for several solutions. A solution of a pair of linear equations in two variables algebraically – by substitution, by elimination, and by cross multiplication method. Simple situational problems must be included. Simple problems on equations reducible to linear equations. Arithmetic Progression Derivation of the nth term and sum of the first n terms of A.P. and their application in solving daily life problems.

### Karnataka SSLC Syllabus for Science 2021

 Science Physics Heat, Electricity, Electromagnetism, Reflection of Light on Different Surface, Refraction at Plane Surface, Refraction at Curved Surface, Human Eye and Colorful World. Chemical Substances Chemical reactions: Chemical equation, Balanced chemical equation, implications of a balanced chemical equation, types of chemical reactions: combination, decomposition, displacement, double displacement, precipitation, neutralization, oxidation, and reduction. Acids, bases and salts: Their definitions in terms of furnishing of H+ and OH- ions, General properties, examples, and uses, the concept of pH scale(Definition relating to logarithm not required), the importance of pH in everyday life; preparation and uses of sodium hydroxide, Bleaching powder, Baking soda, willing soda and Plaster of Paris. Metals and non-metals: Properties of metals and non-metals, reactivity series, formation and properties of ionic compounds, basic metallurgical processes, corrosion, and its prevention. Carbon compounds: Covalent bonding in carbon compounds. Versatile nature of carbon. Homologous series Nomenclature of carbon compounds containing functional groups (halogens, alcohol, ketones, aldehydes, alkanes, and alkynes), the difference between saturated hydrocarbons and unsaturated hydrocarbons World of Living Reproduction: Reproduction in animal and plants (asexual and sexual) reproductive health-need for and methods of family planning. safe sex vs HIV/AIDS. Childbearing and women’s health. Heredity and evolution: Heredity; Mendel’s contribution- Laws for the inheritance of traits: Sex determination: brief introduction; Basic concepts of evolution. Natural Phenomenon Reflection of light at curved surfaces, Images formed by spherical mirrors, center of curvature, principal axis, principal focus, focal length, mirror formula (Derivation not required), magnification. Refraction; laws of refraction, refractive index. Refraction of light by the spherical lens, Image formed by spherical lenses, Lens formula (Derivation not required), Magnification. Power of a lens. Effects of Current Electric current, potential difference, and electric current. Ohm’s law; Resistance, Resistivity, Factors on which the resistance of a conductor depends. Series combination of resistors, the parallel combination of resistors, and its applications in daily life. Heating effect of electric current and its applications in daily life. Electric power, Interrelation between P, V, I, and R.

### Karnataka SSLC Syllabus for Social Science 2021

 Social Science Topics Unit 1: India and the Contemporary World – II The Rise of Nationalism in Europe: The growth of nationalism in Europe after the 1830s, The ideas of Giuseppe Mazzini, etc, General characteristics of the movements in Poland, Hungary, Italy, Germany, and Greece. Unit 2: Contemporary India – II Resources and Development: Types – natural and human; Need for resource planning, natural resources, land as a resource, soil types, and distribution; changing land-use pattern; land degradation and conservation measures. (Chapter 1) Unit 3. Water Resources Sources, distribution, utilization, multi-purpose projects, water scarcity, need for conservation and management, rainwater harvesting. (One case study to be introduced) Unit 4. Agriculture Types of farming, major crops, cropping pattern, technological and institutional reforms; their impact; the contribution of Agriculture to national economy-employment and output. Unit 5. Minerals and Energy Resources: Types of minerals, distribution (Note: on a map only) use and economic importance of minerals, conservation, types of power resources: conventional and non-conventional, distribution and utilization, and conservation Unit 6. Manufacturing Industries Types, spatial distribution (Note: on the map only) contribution of industries to the national economy, industrial pollution, and degradation of the environment, measures to control degradation.

## Karnataka 2nd PUC Syllabus 2021

Candidates can click on the links given below and download the pdf. The link is provided for each subject. It is for the benefit of the candidates, which will help them in organizing their studies in a well-planned manner.

### Karnataka 2nd PUC Syllabus for Maths 2021

 Unit name Topic 1.Relations and Functions 2. Inverse Trigonometric Functions Types of relations: Reflexive, symmetric, transitive, empty, universal, and equivalence relations. Examples and problems.Types of functions: One to one and onto functions, the inverse of a function composite functions, mentioning their properties only, examples, and problems.Binary operations: associative, commutative, identity, inverse with examples 2.ALGEBRA a. Determinants Matrices Concept, notation, order, Types of matrices: column matrix, row matrix, rectangular matrix, square matrix, zero matrices, diagonal matrix, scalar matrix, and unit matrix. Algebra of matrices: Equality of matrices, Addition, multiplication, scalar multiplication of matrices, Transpose of a matrix. Mentioning properties concerning addition, multiplication, scalar multiplication, and the transpose of matrices. Symmetric and skew-symmetric matrices: Definitions, properties of symmetric and skew-symmetric matrices: proofs ofi) If A is any square matrix A+A′ is symmetric and A-A′ is skew-symmetricii) Any square matrix can be expressed as the sum of a symmetric and a skew-symmetric matrix.Concept of elementary row and column operations and finding the inverse of a matrix restricted to 2x2 matrices only. Invertible matrices and proof of the uniqueness of inverse, if it exists; (Here all matrices will have real entries). 3.Calculus a.Continuity and Differentiability b.Applications of Derivatives c.Integrals d.Applications of the Integrals: e.Differential Equations Continuity: Definition, continuity of a function at a point, and on a domain. Examples and problems, Algebra of continuous functions, problems, continuity of composite function and problems Differentiability: Definition, Theorem connecting differentiability, and continuity with a counterexample. 4.VECTORS AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY a.Three-dimensional Geometry: Definition of Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector. Direction cosines/ratios of vectors: direction angles, direction cosines, directionratios, the relation between direction ratio, and direction cosines. Problems. Types of vectors: Equal, unit, zero, parallel, and collinear vectors, coplanar vector position vector of a point, negative of a vector. Components of a vector, 5.Linear Programming Introduction of L.P.P. definition of constraints, objective function, optimization, constraint equations, non-negativity restrictions, feasible and infeasible region, feasible solutions, Mathematical formulation-mathematical formulation of L.P.P. 6.Probability Conditional probability – definition, properties, problems. Multiplication theorem, independent events,Baye’s theorem, the theorem of total probability and problems. The probability distribution of a random variable-definition of a random variable, probability distribution of a random variable, Mean, a variance of a random variable, and problems.Bernoulli trials and Binomial distribution:Definition of Bernoulli trial, binomial distribution, conditions for Binomial distribution, and simple problems.

### Karnataka 2nd PUC Syllabus for Chemistry 2021

 Unit Number and Name Topics Period Allotted 1.Solid state General characteristics of solids: amorphous and crystalline solids – examples, differences.Classification of crystalline solids – based on binding forces: molecular solids – (non-polar, polar, H-bonded), ionic solids, metallic solids, covalent, or network solids – examples for all.Definitions – lattice point, crystal lattice, unit cell, coordination number. Parameters of a unit cell, names of seven crystal systems, calculation of the number of atoms in a cubic unit cell – simplecubic, bcc, fcc. Close packing in two dimensional and three-dimensional lattices - brief information, voids - types of voids, tetrahedral and octahedral and their relative numbers, calculation of the formula of the compounds based on the number of voids filled. Packing insolids - calculation of packing efficiency- fcc/ccp, bcc, simple cubic. Formula to calculate the density of the unit cell to be assumed- use the formula to calculate a, d, z, M, NA. Numerical problems.Point defects-types, a brief account of Frenkel and Schottky defects, metal excess defect, and metal deficiency defect with examples.Electrical properties: classification into conductors, insulators, and semiconductors - their comparison based on band theory of metals, n-type and p-type semiconductors – differences andexamples. Magnetic properties of substances – paramagnetism, diamagnetism, and ferromagnetism, examples. 8 2.Solutions Types of Solutions – binary – gaseous, liquids, and solids, expressing the concentration of a solution of a solid in a liquid mole fraction, molarity, and molality. Solubility, the solubility of a gasin a liquid – Henry’s law, the graph of the partial pressure of a gas vs its mole fraction in solution, effects of pressure, temperature, applications of Henry’s law.The solution of liquid in liquid – Raoult’s law- statement, mathematical expression, numerical problems, ideal solution – characteristics, graph, non - ideal solution –types - their characteristics and differences, examples, azeotropes – types, examples.The solution of a solid in a liquid – Raoult’s law – colligative properties – the relative lowering of vapor pressure, elevation in boiling point, depression in freezing point, graphs for elevation in boilingpoint and depression in freezing point, SI units for Kb, Kf, osmosis – osmotic pressure, isotonic,hypertonic, hypotonic solutions, reverse osmosis – application in desalination of water. Numerical problems on the determination of molar mass using colligative properties.Abnormal molar mass, vant Hoff factor i, the value of i for non-electrolytes and solutes that associate or dissociate in dilute solution. 9 3.Electrochemistry Redox reaction – As fundamental reaction in electrochemical cells, electronic and electrolytic conductors – differences, strong and weak electrolytes, examples-Ionic conductance- factors affecting ionic conductance, conductivity, and molar conductivity of electrolytic solutions- definitions, mathematical expressions, the relationship between them, SI units, numerical problems. Variation of conductivity and molar conductivity with concentration, the graph for variation of Am vs sqroot(c) for strong and weak electrolytes using the equation. (a measurement of conductivity from Wheatstone network not included), limiting molar conductivities, Kohlrauschlaw and applications, numerical problems on calculation for weak electrolytes.Electrolysis –Faraday’s laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), the concept of nF required to discharge one mole of Mn+ ions, numerical problems on I law. 4.Chemical kinetics Rate of a reaction – average and instantaneous, with graphs, SI unit, rate of a reaction expressed as a rate of change in molar concentration of reactants and products using the balanced equation,factors affecting rate of a reaction, the dependence of rate on concentration – rate expression (rate law), the specific rate constant, order, units for the rate constant of zero, first and, second-order reactions.Molecularity – uni, bi, and termolecular reactions – examples.Derivation of integrated rate equation for the rate constant of zero and first-order reactions, graphs for zero and first order reactions-analysis, half-life – derivation of the relationship between t1/2 and k for zero and first-order reactions. Numerical problems on first order and half-life, Pseudo first-order reaction- 9 5.Surface chemistry Classification of colloids-types of colloidal systems- examples, lyophilic and lyophobic— differences and examples, macromolecular, multimolecular and associated colloids, examples, the formation of the micelle, cleansing action of soaps. Preparation of colloids-chemical methods- sulphur and ferric hydroxide sols, Bredig’s arc method for metal sols, peptization. Purification– dialysis, electro-dialysis, ultrafiltration (in brief).Properties of colloids: Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, the charge on colloidal particles, examples, electrophoresis, coagulation – methods of coagulation of lyophobic sols, Hardy- Schulze rule-examples, coagulating value. Protective colloid - example. Applications: In industries, medicines, purification of drinking water.Emulsions: types, examples. 6 6.General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements Principles and methods of extraction: concentration of ores – hydraulic willing, magnetic separation, froth floatation, leaching -of alumina from bauxite, roasting, and calcination –examples. Occurrence (ores) of Al, Cu, Zn, and Fe. Principles of extraction of aluminum, copper, zinc, iron: highlight the principle of extraction of iron from its oxide using the Ellingham diagram.Extraction of iron from its oxides - blast furnace – diagram, reactions, equations 5 7.p-block elements Group 15 elements,Group 16 elements,Group 17 elements: 8.d and f Block Elements General introduction, electronic configuration, characteristics of transition metals (d-block) - variation in atomic and ionic size.Electronic configuration of 3d series elements, general trends in properties of the first-row transition metals (3d series) – metallic character, ionization enthalpies, oxidation states, magneticproperties, color, catalytic properties, the formation of interstitial compounds, alloy formation. 9 9.Coordination Compounds General introduction to salts, the difference between double salt and coordination (complex salt) compound concerning their ionization in water, with an example. Coordination entity, central metal ion, coordination number, coordination sphere, oxidation state of central metal ion, homoleptic and heteroleptic complexes, examples. Ligands -types-unidentate, identate, polydentate, ambidentate, examples. Nomenclature of coordination compounds – mononuclear compounds. 7 10.Haloalkanes and Haloarenes Classification based on hybridization of carbon to which halogen is bonded-alkyl halides (a haloalkane), allylic, benzylic, vinylic, aryl halides. Primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl halides, nomenclature, nature of C X bond. 7 11.Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers Classification: mono, di, tri, allylic, and benzylic alcohols, mono, di, and trihydric phenols and cresols. Ethers – simple and mixed, the nomenclature of alcohols, phenols, ethers.Preparation of alcohols: by acid-catalyzed hydration of alkene, general reaction, and examples, by hydroboration-oxidation of propane, from carbonyl compounds: hydrogenation of aldehydes, ketones, reduction of carboxylic acids and using Grignard reagent- general reactions andexamples (R as H, CH3, and C2H5 wherever applicable. 12.Aldehydes, Ketones, and Carboxylic acids Aldehydes and ketones, ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group.Methods of preparation: Aldehydes- Stephen reduction – general reaction and examples (R=CH3 and C2H5). Preparation of benzaldehyde -Rosenmund reduction, Etard reaction, and GattermanKoch reaction. 9 13.Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen Amines: Structure of amines, classification- 1°, 2°, 3° and aryl amines, nomenclature 6 14.Biomolecules Carbohydrates: classification-based on hydrolysis – mono, oligo and polysaccharides-examples, monosaccharides - aldoses and ketoses, examples, reducing and non-reducing sugars-examples. Glucose: occurrence, some reactions of glucose- with HI, NH2OH, acetic anhydride, Br2/ water – their significance concerning the structure of glucose. Open chain structure of glucose-compared with glyceraldehyde for D and L configuration. Haworth’s (pyranose) structure β-D (+) glucose. Fructose: occurrence, Haworth’s (furanose) structure for α and β-forms.Disaccharide: examples, glycosidic linkage a and  B. 7 15.Polymers Definitions: Polymer, monomer, polymerization, macromolecule.Classification: based on source, structure, types (mode) of polymerization, and molecular forces- examples for each type.Methods of polymerization: Addition, condensation, and copolymerization and examples for each with an equation.Name of monomer/s and partial structure for the polymers polythene, polyamides – nylon 6, nylon-6,6, polyesters-terylene (Dacron), bakelite.Rubber: types natural, synthetic -examples Natural rubber: monomer, the partial structure of natural rubber, Vulcanisation. Preparation of synthetic rubbers: Neoprene, Buna-N. Non-biodegradable polymers, biodegradable polymers (examples). 5 16.Chemistry in everyday life 1. Chemicals in medicines: drugs, chemotherapy - different classes of drugs- antacids, tranquilizers, analgesics, antihistamines, antimicrobials, antibiotics, antiseptics, disinfectants,anti-fertility drugs-examples for all.2. Chemicals in food: artificial sweetening agents, preservatives, antioxidants (elementary idea)- examples for all. 3. Cleansing agents: soaps, the process of saponification with the equation, synthetic detergents-examples, cleansing action of soap and detergents, biodegradable detergent (soap) –elementary idea. 5