How to Become a Doctor in India?

The profession of the doctor is extremely rewarding and fulfilling. The main duty of a doctor is to help people. There are many procedures you need to complete your career path in order to become a doctor.

The process includes lots of studying, examinations, and practical experience. You need to be passionate and determined so that you can make your way through college, medical school, and an additional program to become a certified doctor.

This article "How to become a Doctor" is provided with the complete details such as requirements, subjects, education path, courses and top colleges. You can directly jump to any of the session directly from the table.

Sr. No. Title
1. Requirements for becoming a Doctor in India
4. Education path for becoming a Doctor in India.
5. Courses to become a doctor
6. Top Medical Colleges in India

Requirements for becoming a Doctor in India

  • You are expected to have tenacity as this profession may be very demanding.
  • The job is designed to deal with problems of the human body, therefore, you are expected to have respect for the human body and human life.

  • Unlike many other corporate jobs, doctors do not have fixed timing and you may end up working for hours extended beyond your work timings, and you are required to work for periods longer than their job description.

  • The decisions you make in this profession should be quick and efficient as it deals with the life of another living being.

  • If you are not physically fit, it may take a toll on your performance at work.

  • As the technology changes in all other fields, it changes in the medical industry as well and it is the duty of the doctor to keep themselves updated with the medical advancements that are happening around.

  • The job of the doctor will become extremely difficult mentally if you get attached to a patient or a particular case, hence you should always maintain a distance between your professional life and personal thoughts.

Subjects that must be studied in class 10th and 12th for becoming a Doctor in India

  • No matter what specialization you take up in the later years, you need to have studied physics, chemistry, biology, and maths in your 10+2.
  • You are expected to have at least 60% aggregate in your 12th

  • If you are good at these subjects from an earlier age then cracking the entrance tests would become comparatively easier for you.

Entrance exams to become a doctor

Entrance exams to become a doctor

NEET, AIIMS, JIPMER, and DUPGMET are the top entrance exams to become a doctor.

  • Medical entrance exams in India are held by both National Level decision boards and State level boards.
  • Many universities accept the applications of the students based on their performance at the national level examinations.

  • You can always try to get into a college through the state level entrance exams as well, but the options for colleges will be diminished to great levels.

  • Some universities have also designed entrance exams specially for their institutions. Although most of the selections will be done through all India level examinations.

 Education path for becoming a Doctor in India

  • To pursue a career in medicine, it is important for you to have studied science at 10+2. This is important because basics in subjects like physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics will be taught according to the requirements of the course.

  • After completing your 10+2 you have to give various entrance exams depending on the institution that you want to do your course from. If you get through the entrance tests then you will study Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) for the next five and a half years. This will include a year of compulsory internship.

  • MBBS will give you a general idea of all the different fields in medicine and if you don’t want to study further, you can start your practice as a general physician, but most people go ahead and do their MD or MS and specialize in one particular field.

Courses to become a doctor

Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Science (MBBS)

  • If you want to become a doctor, it is mandatory for you to complete your MBBS.

  • MBBS is a course that is stretch over five and a half years where you will be taught subjects like anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pathology, etc.

  • In the duration of five and a half years, four years includes studying the syllabus and additional year of compulsory internship.

  • To do MBBS you are expected to have a certain set of skills like

  • If you are aspiring to have a career in medicine then you need to have the ability to work with others as a team.

  • You can’t be a doctor if you don’t have the helpful characteristic in you. You need to be willing to help others selflessly.

  • The job of a doctor is very tiring and to complete your work efficiently you need to have good physical strength.

  • The feeling of accountability and sense of responsibility need to prevail because you will be in charge of the life of another person’s life.

  • You need to be compassionate towards others and have a zealous attitude towards your work.

  • Being updated with all the new advancements and innovations in the medical field is very important.

  • A doctor is required to be at the best mental state always.

  • It is necessary to have got an aggregate of 50% in the subjects physics, chemistry, maths, and biology if you want to get into an MBBS programme in India.

  • You can start applying to this programme by the age the age of 17years, until the age of 25 years.

  • It is necessary to score well in the National Eligibility Entrance Test to get into an MBBS programme.

  • Institutions like All India Institute of Medical Sciences and Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research have their own entrance tests which are acknowledged by the Medical Council of India.

  • After completing MBBS most people opt to do Doctor of Medicine (MD) or Master of Surgery(MS) which allows them to specialize in any one particular field of medicine.

  • If you do not want to study further then you can practice as a general physician after the completion of MBBS.

Master of Surgery (MS)

  • Master of surgery is a 3 years post-graduation course divided into 6 semesters.
  • The candidates who have successfully completed 5.5 years of MBBS can pursue M.S.

  • They need to have an aggregate of 50% in their admission tests.

  • Most of the colleges' reserve 50% admissions for the underprivileged or for candidates who belong to the backward classes.

  • The foreign national can apply through Diplomatic certificates and are expected to write the entrance exam just like the regular candidates are expected.

Few of the entrance exams for M.S are:

  • UP PGMEE- UP Post-Graduate Medical Entrance Examination

  • AIPGMEE- All India Post-Graduate Medical Entrance Examination

  • DUPGMET- Delhi University Post Graduate Medical Entrance Test 

Few specializations in Master of Surgery

  • General surgery

  • Ophthalmology

  • Orthopaedics

  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology

  •  The examinations for any subject in MS will be held through thesis, theory paper, practical/clinical examination, and an oral interview.

Top colleges for Master of Surgery are:

  • All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi.

  • Christian Medical College, Vellore.

Job opportunities for MS graduates are:

  • Plastic surgeon

  • Ophthalmologist

  • Pediatric Surgeon

  • Neonatal Surgeon

  • Urological Surgeon

  • Vascular Surgeon.

 Doctor of Medicine (MD)

  • MD.or Doctor of Medicine is a postgraduate course that is done after completion of MBBS.

  • The aim of the course is to gain a better understanding and knowledge of a person’s interested field of specialization.

  • In the duration of the MD course of 3 years, the curriculum includes completion of an exam that tests your knowledge in both theoretical and practical elements. 

  • One can apply only if they have completed MBBS from a university that has been recognized by the Medical Council of India.

Specializations that can be done through MD are

  • MD- Cardiology

  • MD- Neurology

  • MD- Rheumatology

  • MD- Neuro-Radiology

  • MD- Neuro Nephrology

  • MD- Gastroenterology

  • Others

The curriculum for MD will be covered through many mediums like

  • Classroom lectures

  • Thesis on the subjects chose.

  • Theory papers

  • Clinical/practical

  • Oral interview

  • Seminars

  • Journal clubs

  • Group discussion

  • Participation in experiments and laboratory works

  • Research studies in the specialization chosen

  • Exposure to applied aspects of subject relevant techniques

Even though the eligible criteria says that, if you are an MBBS graduate, the course of MD is best for those who have good communication skills as they aren’t faced with just a single type of patients, have good mental and physical strength so that their efficiency is maintained and it requires them to constantly update themselves with the latest advancements in the medical industry.

Few of the jobs that MD graduates can take up:

  • Chiropodist

  • Neurologist

  • Cardiologist

  • Bacteriologist

  • Chief Medical Officer

  • Physiologist

  • Radiologist

  • Nutritionist

Bachelor in Dental Surgery (BDS)

  • Bachelor in Dental Surgery is a graduation course that focuses on diagnosing oral health problems. During the course, the students are taught about problems and surgeries related to dentistry.
  • The duration of the course is for 5 years with a mandatory rotational internship.

  • If you have studied Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and English in class 12, you are eligible for this course.

  • You expected to have a minimum of 50% aggregate in all the subjects.

  • Along with theoretical knowledge, students are placed in situations where they have to directly handle patients and gain practical knowledge.

  • Similar to the MBBS programme, the process of admission will be done through a national level examination. Apart from national level examinations student can appear for the university level examination also for admissions.

  • The counseling process takes place after the entrance tests. The counseling will be done by the respective authorities.

  • The colleges will be allotted to students only on the basis of their performance in the entrance test, that is the rank they have achieved.

  • After completing the course the students can pursue Masters in Dental Surgery as well.

  • BDS is a course that has a 100% placement rate. It also allows the graduates to teach in top medical colleges.

Bachelor of Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery (BHMS)

  • Bachelor of homoeopathic medicine and surgery is a programme that is designed for gaining knowledge in the medical field of homoeopathy.
  • It is a 5-year course after which the graduates of this course are allowed to practice in the homeopathic field as a doctor.

  • Homeopathy doesn’t belong to the mainstream line of medicines. Instead of curing the illness directly it believes in developing an immune system that will protect the system from getting infected by the disease.

  • The eligibility for this course requires you to pass 10+2 with an aggregate of 50%.

  • The only admission test that is held on the national level for this course is NEET and most of the colleges are going to take your rank in NEET for consideration

  • Many private universities also hold entrance exams for this course.

  • Homeopathy medication is accepted not only in India but also has a large number of consumers worldwide, therefore, this will be a good option for those who want to study medicine without taking up MBBS.

Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)

  • Bachelor of Ayurvedic medicine and surgery concentrates on teaching the new age doctors about the ancient method of curing diseases that is Ayurveda.
  • This system of medication concentrates on strengthening the natural healing system of the human body so that the recurrence of the disease.

  • The full duration of the course is 5 years 6 months.

  • The course is divided into three parts with 1.5 years duration each.

  • The course also requires you to do a half year of compulsory internship.

  • The eligibility requirements of the course are the student has to graduate from the science stream in class 12 with an aggregate of 50%.

  • You have to write the NEET exams for admissions.

  • The colleges will select candidates based on both the class 12 marks as well as the rank in the NEET exam.

  • The whole world is concentrating on the consumption of organic products in every sector and is expecting the same in the medical sector as well.

  • There is an increase in demand for ayurvedic products all over the world, hence, the demand for ayurvedic doctors is also rapidly growing.

Bachelor of Unani Medicine and Surgery (BUMS)

  • Bachelor of Unani Medicine and Surgery focuses on gaining knowledge and exposure to apply the uses of Unani in the real world.
  • The duration of the course is 5.5 years which includes 4.5 years of theoretical learning and 1 year of practical usage through an internship.

  • BUMS can be done through distance education as well

  • The candidates have to complete class 12 from the science stream and appear for the NEET exam.

  • The admissions will be made only on the basis of their marks scored in class 12 and the rank they have secured in the NEET exam.

  • The principles of Unani and Ayurveda are quite similar to each other.

  • Unani is the fourth most media of medicine after allopathy, homeopathy, and Ayurveda.

  • It was a practice that was started in the middle-east and south-east Asian countries and has been adopted in India and the entire world.

Bachelor of Veterinary Sciences & Animal Husbandry (B. V. Sc. & A. H.)

  • V. Sc. & A. H. is a course that deals with the treatment of diseases and illness in animals and birds.

  • The duration of the course is from 4.5 years to 5 years.

  • The exam has a special All India Entrance Examination called as All India Pre-Veterinary Test (AIPVT)

  • It is necessary for the candidate to have studied Physics, Chemistry, and Biology in class 12 with an aggregate of 50% at least.

  • You must have genuine compassion towards animals for entering into this profession and be able to understand their feelings through the signs of their body language.

  • The place of work may not be very comfortable or flattering and you must be ready to face such discrepancies.

  • This course also acts as a foundation for those who want to pursue M.Phil. or Ph.D. in veterinary sciences and animal husbandry.

  • The graduates can become Veterinarian, biological scientists, or even lecturers.

Bachelor of Pharmacy (B.Pharm)

  • Bachelor of pharmacy is an undergraduate course which helps one to master the art of mixing chemicals and drugs for medical purposes.

  • You should have studied physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics in class 12 and should have passed with an aggregate of 50% in all the subjects.

  • The entrance exams are held on the university level, state level, and national level.

  • That national level exam is the Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test.

  • The course is divided into six semesters which deals with different topics.

  • After graduation, one can pursue further research or work on a topic to gain a Ph.D.

Top Medical Colleges in India

All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi

  • All-India Institute of Medical Sciences was set up under an Act of Parliament and was marked as an institution of national importance.

  • The objective of AIIMS is the development of techniques in teaching at the undergraduate and post-graduate level of Medical Education in all its branches in order to attain a high standard of education in the medical sector of the nation.

  • It also focuses on innovations that can be brought to the field of medicine.

  • The AIIMS has been conducting teaching programmes as well as para-medical programmes so that the quality of healthcare in India can increase.

  • The institute has more than 600 publications regarding the healthcare sector of the nation.

  • As most of the students in India have to spend a lot of money in attaining medical education from abroad universities, AIIMS is ensuring that the nation becomes self-sufficient when it comes to the education in the medical sector.

  • They conduct a national level entrance exam for conducting the admission process.

Courses offered:

  • AIIMS offers a lot of undergraduate and postgraduate courses for the students who have successfully finished their admission test.

  • The courses offered at AIIMS are

Undergraduate courses

Paramedical Courses

Post graduate courses


B.Sc. (Hons.) Ophthalmic Techniques




B.Sc.  Nursing (post certificate)

B.Sc. (Hons.) Medical Technology




B.Sc. (Hons) Nursing


M.Sc./ M. Biotechnology

Armed Forces Medical College, Pune.

  • If you want to study Medicine and are passionate to serve the nation then Armed Forces Medical College is the perfect institution for you.

  • Armed Forces Medical College is specially set up for providing medical officers to the army.

  • The university was set-up in the year 1948 under the BC Roy Committee by forming an alliance with various medical officers organizations.

  • AFMC is recognized by the Medical Council of India and is affiliated to Maharashtra University of health sciences.

Courses offered

  • AFMC offers various courses apart from MBBS under various categories like a nursing, post-graduate, post-graduate diploma, paramedical, super speciality,  and PhD.

  • Nursing courses:



Basic B.Sc. Nursing

4 years

Post Basic B.Sc. Nursing

2 years

M.Sc. Nursing

2 years

Post basic diploma/ certificate course in Operation Room Nursing

2 years

Post basic diploma/ certificate course in Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation nursing

1 year

Post Basic diploma/ certificate in oncology nursing

1 year

Post basic diploma/ certificate course in cardiothoracic nursing

1 year

Post basic diploma/ certificate course in neonatal nursing

1 year

  • Post graduate courses:




M.Sc. – Anatomy


Master of Hospital Administration




Dermatology, Venereology & Leprosy

General Medicine

Hospital Administration

Immuno Haematology & Blood Transfusion







Radio Diagnosis/Radiology

Sports Medicine

Social & Preventive Medicine / Community Medicine

Tuberculosis & Respiratory Diseases / Pulmonary Medicine



Obstetrics & Gynaecology




General Surgery


 Super speciality and PhD courses






Cardio-Thoracic Surgery

Neuro Surgery

Pediatric Surgery

Plastic Surgery



  • PG Diploma Courses

Sr. No.



Diploma in Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprosy


Diploma in Anaesthesia


Diploma in Child Health


Diploma in Clinical Pathology


Diploma in Hospital Administration


Diploma in Industrial Health


Diploma in Obstetrics & Gynaecology


Diploma in Ophthalmology


Diploma in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology


Diploma in Psychological Medicine


Diploma in Public Health


Diploma in Radio-Diagnosis

Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Pondicherry.

  • Jawaharlal Institute of Post-graduate Medical Education and Research was established in the year 1823 by the French government.

  • It is recognized by the Medical Council Of India.

  • JIPMER has been certified as an Institution of National Importance under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India.

  • Its main aim is to impart quality knowledge to those who aspire to serve in the medical sector.

Courses offered:

  • JIPMER is one of the most well reputed medical colleges in India and it offers various courses to its students.

  • They conduct their own entrance test for the admission of students.

  • Undergraduate courses like MBBS, B.Sc. in nursing and B.Sc.. in allied courses like B.Sc. in Cardiac Technology, B.Sc. Dialysis Technology, B.Sc. NeuroTechnology, B.Sc. Nuclear Medicine Technology, etc.

  • They offer MD courses in fields like Anaesthesiology, Anatomy Biochemistry, Blood Transfusion and Immuno Haematology, Community Medicine Dermatology, Venereology &Leprology, emergency medicine, forensic medicine, general medicine, etc.

  • MS courses like general surgery obstetrics & gynaecology, ophthalmology, orthopaedic surgery, and Oto-rhino laryngology (E.N.T.) are offered.

  • Apart from the courses mentioned above, they offer many other courses under categories like super-speciality, M.Sc., and fellowship programmes.

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