How to become a Doctor in India

How to Become a Doctor in India?

The profession of the doctor is extremely rewarding and fulfilling. The main duty of a doctor is to help people. There are many procedures you need to complete your career path in order to become a doctor.

The process includes lots of studying, examinations, and practical experience. You need to be passionate and determined so that you can make your way through college, medical school, and an additional program to become a certified doctor.

This article "How to Become a Doctor" is provided with complete details such as requirements, subjects, education path, courses, and top colleges. You can directly jump to any of the session directly from the table.

  1. Types of Doctors
  2. How to Become a Doctor in India after 12th
  3. Entrance exam for medical
    1. NEET Exam
    2. AIIMS Exam
    3. JIPMER MBBS Exam
  4. Medical courses without NEET
  5. Medical courses after 12th
    1. Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Science (MBBS)
    2. Master of Surgery (MS)
    3. Doctor of Medicine (MD)
    4. Bachelor in Dental Surgery (BDS)
    5. Bachelor of Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery (BHMS)
    6. Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
    7. Bachelor of Unani Medicine and Surgery (BUMS)
    8. Bachelor of Veterinary Sciences & Animal Husbandry (B. V. Sc. & A. H.)
    9. Bachelor of Pharmacy (B.Pharm)
  6. Top Medical colleges in India
  7. Doctor salary in India

Types of Doctors

In hearing the name doctor, one can imagine a visual of a man or a woman in a white coat and a stethoscope worn around the neck with a smiling face. Well, it applies to your regular family physician who represents a single profession in the medical field. There are various professionals in the field of medicine and some of the professionals who deal with our common senses are discussed here.

  1. Family Physician
  2. Cardiologist
  3. Dentist
  4. Ophthalmologist
  5. Psychiatrist
  6. Neurologist

Family Physician: Family Physician is one of the primary care specialists who attend for patients of all ages and provide basic care for basic ailments. The main role of a family physician is to diagnose a major health problem by means of test and in further referring to a specialist.

Cardiologist: Cardiologists focus on the treatment of heart and many diseases related to it. Cardiology is one of the many sub - specialties of internal medicine and by the assessment of the medical and history of families, they determine the potential risk for certain cardiovascular diseases and take action to prevent them

Dentist: A dentist is a line of a profession in the medical field where he/she has to work with human teeth, the examination of teeth, gum health, and so on. The dental team includes dental assistants, dental hygienists, dental technicians and in some dental therapists

Ophthalmologist: Ophthalmologists are medical doctors who treat disorders that occur in eyes, such as cataracts and glaucoma. They play an important role in providing eye care for our need and can also perform eye surgery when necessary. Check Opthamology Courses after 12th, entrance exam, and best institutes.

Psychiatrist: A Psychiatrist treats emotional and behavioral problems with a combination of personal counseling, psychoanalysis, hospitalization, and medication. They occupy an important place in the medical field study and mental process. The field of work differs based on child psychiatry and adolescent psychiatry.

Neurologist: Doctors who take care of patients with issues that affect the brain, spine or nerves are called Neurologist. Patients with complex medical disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis consult with Neurologist. In addition to the research of brain stem, they also study in detail about the nervous system

How to become a doctor in India after 12th

To become a doctor in India after 12th is a great choice of career. This profession is designed to deal with problems of the human body, therefore, you are expected to have respect for the human body and human life. Unlike many other corporate jobs, doctors do not have fixed timing and you may end up working for hours extended beyond your work timings, and you are required to work for periods longer than their job description. The decisions you make in this profession should be quick and efficient as it deals with the life of another living being. If you are not physically fit, it may take a toll on your performance at work.

As the technology changes in all other fields, it changes in the medical industry as well and it is the duty of the doctor to keep themselves updated with the medical advancements that are happening around. The job of the doctor will become extremely difficult mentally if you get attached to a patient or a particular case, hence you should always maintain a distance between your professional life and personal thoughts. The doctors should abide by the Hippocratic oath they took which comes as follows, "I swear to fulfill, to the best of my ability and judgment, this covenant: I will respect the hard-won scientific gains of those physicians in whose steps I walk, and gladly share such knowledge as is mine with those who are to follow."

In this article How to become a doctor in India, we have listed out the entrance exams and courses need to be taken after completing class 12th.

Entrance Exam for Doctor in India

Medical entrance exams in India are held by both National Level decision boards and State level boards. Many universities accept the applications of the students based on their performance at the national level examinations. You can always try to get into a college through the state level entrance exams as well, but the options for colleges will be diminished to great levels.

Some universities have also designed entrance exams specially for their institutions. Although most of the selections will be done through all India level examinations.

Listed below are some of the medical entrance exams after 12th who wants to pursue a career in this noble profession.

  1. NEET Exam
  2. AIIMS Exam


National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET) is one of the most important and prominent exams in India. it is considered as a gateway of securing the UG admissions in the top medical colleges of India. It is a single entrance test for admissions to more than 66,000 MBBS and BDS seats across India. NEET PG is conducted by National Board of Education (NBE) and candidates who qualify for this go through counseling conducted by the Medical Council of India (MCC). Prepare for NEET 2019.


All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi conducts AIIMS MBBS for undergraduate admissions. It is a group of autonomous public medical colleges of higher education. Candidates having the equivalent qualification can attempt for AIIMS exam due to fair competition and reputation for the institute


The Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research (JIPMER) is an Indian central government funded institute with autonomy. JIPMER Exam is considered as one of the prominent exams in India and candidates have to consider this JIPMER Exam as a gateway to qualify for MBBS.

Medical courses without NEET

NEET is one of the most prominent exams and is considered as the gateway for MBBS Exam. But some students consider it difficult to qualify for the exam but also have a passion in the medical field. In that case, there are various professions that can be pursued through medical courses without the NEET Exam which includes phlebotomists, medical lab technologists and so on. These professionals work as auxiliaries to doctors with the goal of helping them simplify their tasks.

The courses which are to be mentioned below does not require to pass the NEET Exam for admissions or do not want to go through any of the NEET processes.

The list of medical courses without NEET are as follows:

  • Occupational Therapist
  • Biotechnologist
  • Nutritionist
  • Psychologist
  • Biomedical Engineer
  • Cardiovascular Technologist
  • Microbiologist
  • Respiratory Therapist

Medical Courses after 12th

If you have completed your 12th with excellent scores and looking to pursue a career in the medical field?. Then you're at the right place. Medical courses can be pursued by students who have completed 12th Science with PCB subjects. PCB subjects together make the ‘Biology group’. Biology group is also popularly known as the ‘B’ group among students. Listed below are some of the medical courses with description to pursue your career in the field of medicine.

Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Science (MBBS)

If you want to become a doctor, it is mandatory for you to complete your MBBS. MBBS full form is Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Science. It is a course that is stretch over five and a half years where you will be taught subjects like anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pathology, etc. In the duration of five and a half years, four years includes studying the syllabus and additional year of compulsory internship. To do MBBS you are expected to have a certain set of skills like If you are aspiring to have a career in medicine then you need to have the ability to work with others as a team. You can’t be a doctor if you don’t have the helpful characteristic in you. You need to be willing to help others selflessly. The job of a doctor is very tiring and to complete your work efficiently you need to have good physical strength.

The feeling of accountability and sense of responsibility need to prevail because you will be in charge of the life of another person’s life. You need to be compassionate towards others and have a zealous attitude towards your work. Being updated with all the new advancements and innovations in the medical field is very important. A doctor is required to be at the best mental state always. It is necessary to have got an aggregate of 50% in the subjects physics, chemistry, maths, and biology if you want to get into an MBBS program in India. You can start applying for this program by the age of 17years, until the age of 25 years. It is necessary to score well in the National Eligibility Entrance Test to get into an MBBS program.

Institutions like All India Institute of Medical Sciences and Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research have their own entrance tests which are acknowledged by the Medical Council of India. After completing MBBS most people opt to do Doctor of Medicine (MD) or Master of Surgery(MS) which allows them to specialize in any one particular field of medicine. If you do not want to study further then you can practice as a general physician after the completion of MBBS.

MBBS Course duration

MBBS is the most sought course by students after the completion of 12th. MBBS course duration is 5.5 years i.e (4.5 years of academic education + 1 year of mandatory internship). After the completion of the program, the students acquire two degrees as Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery

Master of Surgery (MS)

Master of surgery is a 3 years post-graduation course divided into 6 semesters. The candidates who have successfully completed 5.5 years of MBBS can pursue M.S.

  • The students need to have an aggregate of 50% in their admission tests.

  • Most of the colleges' reserve 50% admissions for the underprivileged or for candidates who belong to the backward classes.

  • The foreign national can apply through Diplomatic certificates and are expected to write the entrance exam just like the regular candidates are expected.

Few of the entrance exams for M.S are:

  • UP PGMEE- UP Post-Graduate Medical Entrance Examination
  • AIPGMEE- All India Post-Graduate Medical Entrance Examination
  • DUPGMET- Delhi University Post Graduate Medical Entrance Test 

Few specializations in Master of Surgery

  • General surgery
  • Ophthalmology
  • Orthopedics
  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology

The examinations for any subject in MS will be held through thesis, theory paper, practical/clinical examination, and an oral interview.

Top colleges for Master of Surgery are

  • All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi.
  • Christian Medical College, Vellore.

Job opportunities for MS graduates are:

  • Plastic surgeon
  • Ophthalmologist
  • Pediatric Surgeon
  • Neonatal Surgeon
  • Urological Surgeon
  • Vascular Surgeon

Doctor of Medicine (MD)

MD full form in medical is Doctor of Medicine. It is a postgraduate course that is done after completion of MBBS.

  • The aim of the course is to gain a better understanding and knowledge of a person’s interested field of specialization.

  • In the duration of the MD course of 3 years, the curriculum includes completion of an exam that tests your knowledge in both theoretical and practical elements. 

  • One can apply only if they have completed MBBS from a university that has been recognized by the Medical Council of India.

Specializations that can be done through MD are

  • MD- Cardiology
  • MD- Neurology
  • MD- Rheumatology
  • MD- Neuro-Radiology
  • MD- Neuro Nephrology
  • MD- Gastroenterology
  • Others

The curriculum for MD will be covered through many mediums like

  • Classroom lectures
  • Thesis on the subjects chose.
  • Theory papers
  • Clinical/practical
  • Oral interview
  • Seminars
  • Journal clubs
  • Group discussion
  • Participation in experiments and laboratory works
  • Research studies in the specialization chosen
  • Exposure to applied aspects of subject relevant techniques

Even though the eligible criteria says that, if you are an MBBS graduate, the course of MD is best for those who have good communication skills as they aren’t faced with just a single type of patients, have good mental and physical strength so that their efficiency is maintained and it requires them to constantly update themselves with the latest advancements in the medical industry.

Few of the jobs that MD graduates can take up:

  • Chiropodist
  • Neurologist
  • Cardiologist
  • Bacteriologist
  • Chief Medical Officer
  • Physiologist
  • Radiologist
  • Nutritionist

Bachelor in Dental Surgery (BDS)

Bachelor in Dental Surgery is a graduation course that focuses on diagnosing oral health problems. During the course, the students are taught about problems and surgeries related to dentistry.

  • The duration of the course is for 5 years with a mandatory rotational internship.

  • If you have studied Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and English in class 12, you are eligible for this course.

  • You expected to have a minimum of 50% aggregate in all the subjects.

  • Along with theoretical knowledge, students are placed in situations where they have to directly handle patients and gain practical knowledge.

  • Similar to the MBBS program, the process of admission will be done through a national level examination. Apart from national level examinations student can appear for the university level examination also for admissions.

  • The counseling process takes place after the entrance tests. The counseling will be done by the respective authorities.

  • The colleges will be allotted to students only on the basis of their performance in the entrance test, that is the rank they have achieved.

  • After completing the course the students can pursue Masters in Dental Surgery as well.

  • BDS is a course that has a 100% placement rate. It also allows the graduates to teach in top medical colleges.

Bachelor of Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery (BHMS)

Bachelor of homeopathic medicine and surgery is a program that is designed for gaining knowledge in the medical field of homeopathy.

  • It is a 5-year course after which the graduates of this course are allowed to practice in the homeopathic field as a doctor.

  • Homeopathy doesn’t belong to the mainstream line of medicines. Instead of curing the illness directly it believes in developing an immune system that will protect the system from getting infected by the disease.

  • The eligibility for this course requires you to pass 10+2 with an aggregate of 50%.

  • The only admission test that is held on the national level for this course is NEET and most of the colleges are going to take your rank in NEET for consideration

  • Many private universities also hold entrance exams for this course.

  • Homeopathy medication is accepted not only in India but also has a large number of consumers worldwide, therefore, this will be a good option for those who want to study medicine without taking up MBBS.

Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)

Bachelor of Ayurvedic medicine and surgery concentrates on teaching the new age doctors about the ancient method of curing diseases that is Ayurveda.

  • This system of medication concentrates on strengthening the natural healing system of the human body so that the recurrence of the disease.

  • The full duration of the course is 5 years 6 months.

  • The course is divided into three parts with 1.5 years duration each.

  • The course also requires you to do a half year of compulsory internship.

  • The eligibility requirements of the course are the student has to graduate from the science stream in class 12 with an aggregate of 50%.

  • You have to write the NEET exams for admissions.

  • The colleges will select candidates based on both the class 12 marks as well as the rank in the NEET exam.

  • The whole world is concentrating on the consumption of organic products in every sector and is expecting the same in the medical sector as well.

  • There is an increase in demand for ayurvedic products all over the world, hence, the demand for ayurvedic doctors is also rapidly growing.

Bachelor of Unani Medicine and Surgery (BUMS)

Bachelor of Unani Medicine and Surgery focuses on gaining knowledge and exposure to apply the uses of Unani in the real world.

  • The duration of the course is 5.5 years which includes 4.5 years of theoretical learning and 1 year of practical usage through an internship.

  • BUMS can be done through distance education as well

  • The candidates have to complete class 12 from the science stream and appear for the NEET exam.

  • The admissions will be made only on the basis of their marks scored in class 12 and the rank they have secured in the NEET exam.

  • The principles of Unani and Ayurveda are quite similar to each other.

  • Unani is the fourth most media of medicine after allopathy, homeopathy, and Ayurveda.

  • It was a practice that was started in the middle-east and south-east Asian countries and has been adopted in India and the entire world.

Bachelor of Veterinary Sciences & Animal Husbandry (B. V. Sc. & A. H.)

V. Sc. & A. H. is a course that deals with the treatment of diseases and illness in animals and birds.

  • The duration of the course is from 4.5 years to 5 years.

  • The exam has a special All India Entrance Examination called as All India Pre-Veterinary Test (AIPVT)

  • It is necessary for the candidate to have studied Physics, Chemistry, and Biology in class 12 with an aggregate of 50% at least.

  • You must have genuine compassion towards animals for entering into this profession and be able to understand their feelings through the signs of their body language.

  • The place of work may not be very comfortable or flattering and you must be ready to face such discrepancies.

  • This course also acts as a foundation for those who want to pursue M.Phil. or Ph.D. in veterinary sciences and animal husbandry.

  • The graduates can become Veterinarian, biological scientists, or even lecturers.

Bachelor of Pharmacy (B.Pharm)

Bachelor of pharmacy is an undergraduate course which helps one to master the art of mixing chemicals and drugs for medical purposes.

  • You should have studied physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics in class 12 and should have passed with an aggregate of 50% in all the subjects.

  • The entrance exams are held on the university level, state level, and national level.

  • That national level exam is the Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test.

  • The course is divided into six semesters which deals with different topics.

  • After graduation, one can pursue further research or work on a topic to gain a Ph.D.

Top Medical Colleges in India

Some of the top medical colleges in India are listed below for the students who want to pursue a career in the Medical field

  • All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi
  • Christian Medical College, Vellore
  • King George's Medical University, Lucknow
  • University College of Medical Sciences, University of Delhi, Delhi
  • Kasturba Medical College, Manipal
  • Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research Puducherry
  • Institute of Medical Sciences Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi
  • St Johns Medical College, Bangalore
  • Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi
  • Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Chennai

Doctor salary in India

The competition in the field of medical is ever increasing and the general public is more aware and educated than ever, so sustaining with only an MBBS degree has become more difficult nowadays, with everyone wants to have best of the experiences, by consulting a specialist for any ailment. Private hospitals in India typically pay less than 10% of the revenue a single doctor can generate. So for a doctor to earn Rs. 12 crore per annum, the amount of revenue that needs to be generated per year is Rs. 100 crore plus.

The average pay for a Physician / Doctor, Internal Medicine is Rs 1,221,430 per year according to sources from PayScale  

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Harshith Kulal

Thanks for sharing