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HCC Syllabus 2022

The HCC syllabus issued will be applicable for all the schools affiliated with Humming Bird Foundation. Humming Bird Education releases their syllabus and pattern of olympiad they conduct with the free books they offer to the participating schools. HCC exams are framed as application-based problems related to Business, Economics, and Accounting.

The Humming Bird books are issued to the participating school after the submission of the registration booklet. HCC 2022 includes all the concepts of the different education boards, i.e., CBSE, ICSE, and State Board of eligible classes (classes 11 and 12).

Table of Contents

Steps to Download HCC Syllabus for Class 11 and 12

HCC syllabus covers a comprehensive syllabus that exposes students to in-depth and interesting problems. Commerce Olympiad sample papers are developed around Economics, Business Studies, and Accounting.

Get your free learning application and book after HCC 2022 Registration.

  • Login to Humming Bird Education Ltd. and register for the HCC 2022 exam by uploading all the necessary details.
  • After you have registered for the exam online or via your school by filling the registration form, Humming Bird will provide you with a book and access to the Humming Bird Learning App, which contains many videos and audio tutorials free of cost.
  • Students can find the syllabus in the app as well as in the book given to them.

Note: Check for the updated syllabus content, which will be given in the Free Book provided to all registered participants.

Find the syllabus for Class XI and XII below.

HCC Syllabus for Class 11

HCC Olympiad exam for class XI comprises the study of core knowledge of Economics (includes an introduction to Microeconomics, Basic economic statistics), Business Studies (includes Business foundation, Finance & Trade), and Accounting (includes basic and advanced financial accounting).

Given below are the chapter-wise topics covered for the HCC olympiad.

HCC Economics Syllabus for Class 11

The syllabus of Economics is designed to test understanding of basic economic concepts and models. The syllabus consists of two parts: Introductory Microeconomics and Statics for Economics. It is based on the current curriculum provided by New Education Policy 2020.

The list of topics covered in each chapter is as follows.

Part A: Introductory Microeconomics

Find below the detailed Introductory Microeconomics unit-wise topics to be covered for the class 11 HCC exam.

Unit 1: Introduction

  • Meaning of microeconomics and macroeconomics
  • Positive and normative economics
  • What is an economy?
  • Central problems of an economy: what, how, and for whom to produce
  • Concepts of production possibility frontier and opportunity cost

Unit 2: Consumer's Equilibrium and Demand

  • Consumer's equilibrium -meaning of utility, marginal utility
  • The law of diminishing marginal utility
  • Conditions of consumer's equilibrium using marginal utility analysis
  • Indifference curve analysis of consumer's equilibrium-the consumer's budget (budget set and budget line)
  • Preferences of the consumer (indifference curve, indifference map) and conditions of consumer's equilibrium
  • Demand, market demand, determinants of demand, demand schedule, demand curve, and its slope, movement along, and shifts in the demand curve
  • Price elasticity of demand -factors affecting price elasticity of demand
  • Measurement of price elasticity of demand -percentage-change method

Unit 3: Producer Behavior and Supply

  • Meaning of production function - short-run and long-run
  • Returns to a factor cost: total cost, total fixed cost, total variable cost, average cost.
  • Average fixed cost, the average variable cost, and marginal cost-meaning and their relationships.
  • Revenue - total, average and marginal revenue - meaning and their relationship.
  • Producer's equilibrium - meaning and its conditions in terms of marginal revenue-marginal cost.
  • Supply, market supply, determinants of supply, supply schedule, supply curve, and its slope.
  • Movements along and shifts in the supply curve, price elasticity of supply.
  • Measurement of price elasticity of supply - percentage - change method.

Unit 4: Forms of Market and Price Determination under Perfect Competition with simple applications.

  • Perfect competition -Features.
  • Determination of market equilibrium and effects of shifts in demand and supply.
  • Other Market Forms -monopoly, monopolistic competition, oligopoly -their meaning and features.
  • Simple applications of demand and supply: Price ceiling, price floor.

Part B: Statistics for Economics

Find below the detailed Statistics of Economics unit-wise topics to be covered for the class 11 HCC exam.

Unit 1: Introduction

  • What is Economics?
  • Meaning, scope, functions, and importance of statistics in Economics.

Unit 2: Collection, Organisation, and Presentation of data

  • Collection of data -sources of data -primary and secondary.
  • How basic data is collected, with concepts of Sampling.
  • Sampling and Non-Sampling errors.
  • Methods of collecting data.
  • Some important sources of secondary data: Census of India and National Sample Survey Organisation.
  • Organization of data: meaning and types of variables
  • Presentation of data
    • Tabular presentation and diagrammatic presentation of data
    • Geometric forms (bar diagrams and pie diagrams)
    • Frequency diagrams (histogram, polygon)
    • Arithmetic line graphs (time series graph)

Unit 3: Statistical Tools and Interpretation

  • Measures of Central Tendency-mean (simple and weighted), median, and mode
  • Measures of Dispersion -absolute dispersion (range, quartile deviation, mean deviation, and standard deviation)
  • Relative dispersion (coefficient of range, coefficient of quartile-deviation, coefficient of mean deviation, coefficient of variation)
  • Lorenz Curve: Meaning, construction, and its application.
  • Correlation - meaning and properties scatter diagram.
  • Measures of correlation - Karl Pearson's method (two variables ungrouped data) Spearman's rank correlation.
  • Introduction to Index Numbers - meaning, types - wholesale price index, consumer price index and index of industrial production, uses of index numbers.
  • Inflation and index numbers

HCC Business Studies Syllabus for Class 11

To assess the analytical and conceptual thinking, the syllabus is designed based on the current curriculum provided by New Education Policy 2020. The syllabus consists of two parts, the Foundation of Business and Finance & Trade.

The list of topics covered in each chapter is as follows.

Part A: Foundation of Business

Find below the detailed Foundation of Business unit-wise topics to be covered for the class 11 HCC exam.

Unit 1: Evolution and Fundamentals of Business

  • History of Commerce in India
  • Business - Concept
  • Business, profession, and employment - Concept
  • Objectives of business Classification of business activities - Industry and Commerce
  • Industry and types: primary, secondary, tertiary - meaning and subgroups
  • Commerce and trade: (types-internal, external, wholesale and retail) and auxiliaries to trade, banking, insurance, transportation, warehousing, communication, and advertising)
  • Business risk - Concept

Unit 2: Forms of Business organizations

  • Sole proprietorship - concept, merits, and limitations
  • Partnership - concept, types, merits, and limitations of partnership, registration of a partnership firm, partnership deed
  • Hindu undivided family business
  • Cooperative Societies - concept, merits, and limitations
  • Company - Concept, merits, and limitations
  • Types - Private and Public and one person Company- Concept
  • Formation of the company - stages, important documents to be used in the formation of a company Choice of the form of business organization

Unit 3: Public, Private and Global Enterprises

  • Public sector and private sector enterprises
  • Forms of public sector enterprises: departmental undertakings, statutory corporations, and government company
  • Global enterprises, joint ventures, public-private partnership

Unit 4: Business Services

  • Business services and their types - Meaning
  • Banking - Types of Bank accounts - savings, current, recurring, fixed deposit, and the multiple option deposit account
  • Banking services with particular reference to Bank Draft, Bank Overdraft, Cash credit, E-Banking meaning, types of digital payments.
  • Insurance - Principles, Types - life, health, fire, and marine insurance - concept
  • Postal Services-Mail, Registered Post, Parcel, Speed Post, Courier-meaning.

Unit 5: Emerging Modes of Business

  • E-business- concept, scope, and benefits
  • Outsourcing-Concept: Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) - Concept, need, and scope

Unit 6: Social Responsibility of Business and Business Ethics

  • Concept of social responsibility
  • Case for social responsibility
  • Responsibility towards owners, investors, consumers, employees, government, and community
  • Environment protection and business - Meaning and role
  • Business Ethics - Concept and Elements

Part B: Finance and Trade

Find below the detailed Finance and Trade unit-wise topics to be covered for the class 11 HCC exam.

Unit 7: Sources of Business Finance

  • Concept of business finance
  • Owners' funds - equity shares, preferences, share, retained earnings, Global Depository Receipt (GDR), American Depository Receipt (ADR), and International
  • Depository Receipt (IDR) and retained earnings - concept
  • Equity shares, preference shares, retained earnings - meaning, merits and limitations.
  • Global Depository Receipts (GDR) American Depository Receipts (GDR), International Depository Receipts (IDR) - Meaning
  • Borrowed funds: debentures and bonds, a loan from a financial institution, loans from commercial banks, public deposits, trade credit, Inter Corporate Deposits (ICD).

Unit 8: Small Business and Enterprises

  • Entrepreneurship development (ED): concept, characteristics, and need
  • Role of small business in India with special reference to rural areas
  • Government schemes and agencies for small scale industries: National Small Industries Corporation (NSIC) and District Industrial Centre (DIC) with special reference to rural, backward areas

Unit 9: Internal Trade

  • Internal trade - meaning and types services rendered by a wholesaler and a retailer
  • Large scale retailers - departmental stores
  • Concept of automatic vending machine
  • Main documents used in internal trade: performa invoice, invoice, debit note, credit note.
  • Lorry Receipt (LR) and Railways Receipt (RR).
  • Terms of Trade - Cash on Delivery (COD), Free on Board (FOB), Cost, Insurance and Freight (CIF), Errors, and Omissions Excepted (E&0E).

Unit 10: International Trade

  • International trade: concepts and benefits
  • Export trade - meaning, objective, and procedure of export trade
  • Import Trade - meaning, objectives, and procedure;
  • Documents involved in international trade
  • World Trade Organisation (WTO) meaning and objectives

HCC Accounting Syllabus for Class 11

The syllabus engages students with the relevance and applicability of accounting in real-world contexts. Students will explore the role and responsibilities of the accountant and study areas such as financial accounting and cost and management accounting. The syllabus consists of Financial Accounting in two parts, I & II.

The list of topics covered in each chapter is as follows.

Part A: Financial Accounting I

Find below the detailed Financial Accounting I unit-wise topics to be covered for the class 11 HCC exam.

Unit 1: Theoretical Framework

  • Introduction to accounting
  • Basic accounting terms - business transaction, account, capital, drawings, liabilities (non-current and current), assets (non-current and current), fixed assets (tangible and intangible assets), expenditure (capital and revenue), expense, income, profits, gains and losses, purchases, sales, goods, debtor, creditor, voucher, and discount (trade discount and cash discount).
  • Theory base of accounting - fundamental accounting assumptions
  • Basis of accounting: cash basis and accrual basis
  • Accounting standards: need, benefits, limitations, applicability, IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standards)
  • Goods and services tax (GST): characteristics and objectives.

Unit 2: Accounting Process

  • Recording of transactions
  • Voucher and transactions: source documents and vouchers, preparation of vouchers, accounting equation approach, meaning and analysis, rules of debit and credit.
  • Recording of transactions: books of original entry, journal, special-purpose book
  • Cashbook: simple cash book and cash book with bank column petty cash book
  • Other books: purchases book, sales book, purchases return book, and sales returns.
  • Ledger: format, posting from journal and subsidiary books, balancing of accounts
  • Preparation of bank reconciliation statement: bank reconciliation statement
  • Depreciation, provisions, and reserves: concept, features, causes, and factors affecting depreciation
  • Accounting treatment of depreciation: By charging to an asset account, creating provision for depreciation/ accumulated depreciation account, treatment, or disposal of the asset.
  • Types of reserves: revenue reserve, capital reserve, general reserve, specific reserve, and secret reserve
  • Difference between capital and revenue reserve
  • Bills of exchange and promissory note: definition, features, parties, specimen, and distinction.
  • Accounting treatment of accommodation bill transactions
  • Trial balance and rectification of errors
  • Detection and rectification of errors

Part B: Financial Accounting II

Find below the detailed Financial Accounting II unit-wise topics to be covered for the class 11 HCC exam.

Unit 3: Financial Statements of Sole Proprietorship from Complete and Incomplete Records

  • Financial Statements
  • Receipts and expenditure: revenue receipts and capital receipts.
  • Capital expenditure, revenue expenditure, and deferred expenditure - objective and importance
  • Trading, profit/loss, account gross profit, operating profit, and net profit
  • Preparation: balance sheet, grouping, marshalling of assets and liabilities
  • Adjustments in preparation of financial statements for closing stock, outstanding expenses, prepaid expenses, accrued income, and income received in advance, depreciation, bad debts, provision for doubtful debts, provision for discount on debtors, abnormal loss, goods taken for personal use, goods distributed as free samples and manager's commission.
  • Preparation of Trading and Profit and Loss account and Balance sheet of a sole proprietorship with adjustments
  • Incomplete records: features, reasons, and limitations
  • Ascertainment of profit/loss by a statement of affairs method.
  • Difference between accounts from incomplete records and statement of affairs.
  • Preparation of trading, profit & loss account, and balance sheet.

Unit 4: Computers in Accounting

  • Introduction to computer and accounting information system (AIS): Introduction to computers (elements, capabilities, limitations of computer system), Introduction to operating software, utility software, and application software.
  • Introduction to accounting information system (AIS) as a part of the Management Information System.
  • Automation of accounting process: meaning
  • Stages in automation:
    • Accounting process in a computerized environment
    • Sourcing of accounting software
    • Customized software and tailor-made software
    • Creation of account groups and hierarchy

HCC Syllabus for Class 12

The HCC Olympiad exam for class XII is structured as a problem-solving competitive exam. HCC syllabus is under the subjects of Economics (includes an introduction to Microeconomics and Macroeconomics), Business Studies (includes Management principles and foundation, Business Finance & Marketing), and Accounting (includes Accounting for Non-profit organizations, Partnership firms, & Companies ). Given below are the chapter-wise topics covered for the HCC olympiad.

Given below are the chapter-wise topics covered for the HCC olympiad.

HCC Economics Syllabus for Class 12

The syllabus of Economics is designed to test understanding of basic economic concepts and models. The syllabus consists of two parts: Introductory Microeconomics and Statistics for Economics. It is based on the current curriculum provided by New Education Policy 2020.

The list of topics covered in each chapter is as follows.

Part A: Introductory Microeconomics

Find below the detailed Introductory Microeconomics unit-wise topics to be covered for the class 12 HCC exam.

Unit 1: Introduction

  • Meaning of microeconomics and macroeconomics
  • Positive and normative economics
  • What is an economy?
  • Central problems of an economy: what, how, and for whom to produce concepts of production possibility frontier and opportunity cost

Unit 2: Consumer's Equilibrium and Demand

  • Consumer's equilibrium - meaning of utility, marginal utility
  • The law of diminishing marginal utility, conditions of consumer's equilibrium using marginal utility analysis
  • Indifference curve analysis of consumer's equilibrium
    • Consumer's budget (budget set and budget line)
    • Preferences of the consumer (indifference curve, indifference map)
    • Conditions of consumer's equilibrium.
  • Demand, market demand, determinants of demand, demand schedule, demand curve, slope, movement along, and shifts in the demand curve.

Unit 3: Producer Behavior and Supply

  • Meaning of production function - short-run and long-run
  • Cost: short-run costs -total cost, total fixed cost, total variable cost
  • Average cost
  • Average fixed cost, the average variable cost, and marginal cost-meaning and their relationships.
  • Revenue - total, average, and marginal revenue
  • Producer's equilibrium

Unit 4: Forms of Market and Price Determination under Perfect Competition with simple applications.

  • Determination of market equilibrium and effects of shifts in demand and supply
  • Other market forms -monopoly, monopolistic competition, oligopoly, their meaning and features
  • Simple applications of demand and supply: price ceiling, price floor

Part B: Introductory Macroeconomics

Find below the detailed Introductory Macroeconomics unit-wise topics to be covered for the class 12 HCC exam.

Unit 5: National Income and Related Aggregates

  • Some basic concepts: consumption goods, capital goods, final goods, intermediate goods
  • Circular flow of income (two-sector model)
  • Methods of calculating national income - value-added or product method, expenditure method, income method.
  • Aggregates related to National Income: GNP, NNP, GDP, and NDP at market price, at factor cost.
  • Real and Nominal GDP
  • GDP and Welfare

Unit 6: Money and Banking

  • Money - meaning and supply of money
  • Currency held by the public and net demand deposits held by commercial banks
  • Money creation by the commercial banking system
  • The central bank and its functions

Unit 7: Determination of Income and Employment

  • Aggregate demand and its components
  • Propensity to consume and the propensity to save (average and marginal).
  • Short-run equilibrium output
  • Investment multiplier and its mechanism
  • Meaning of full employment and involuntary unemployment
  • Problems of excess demand and deficient demand
  • Measures to correct the problems- changes in government spending, taxes, and money supply

Unit 8: Government Budget and the Economy

  • Government budget - meaning, objectives, and components
  • Classification of receipts - revenue receipts and capital receipts
  • classification of expenditure - revenue expenditure and capital expenditure
  • Measures of government deficit - revenue deficit, fiscal deficit, primary deficit their meaning

Unit 9: Balance of Payments

  • Balance of payments account - meaning and components
  • the balance of payments deficit meaning.
  • Foreign exchange rate - meaning of fixed/ flexible rates and managed to float.
  • Determination of exchange rate in a free market

HCC Business Studies Syllabus for Class 12

To assess the analytical and conceptual thinking, the syllabus is designed based on the current curriculum provided by New Education Policy 2020. The syllabus consists of two parts, the Foundation of Business and Finance & Trade.

The list of topics covered in each chapter is as follows.

Part A: Principles and Functions of Management

Find below the detailed Principles and Functions of Management unit-wise topics for the class 12 HCC exam.

Unit 1: Nature and Significance of Management

  • Management - concept, objectives, and importance
  • The concept includes meaning and features
  • Management as science, art, and profession
  • Levels of management
  • Management functions - planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling
  • Coordination- concept and importance

Unit 2: Principles of Management

  • Principles of management - concept and significance
  • Fayol's principles of management
  • Taylor's scientific management - principles and techniques

Unit 3: Business Environment

  • Business environment - concept and importance
  • Dimensions of business environment - economic, social, technological, political, and legal
  • Demonetisation - concept and features
  • Impact of government policy changes on business with special reference to liberalization, privatization, and globalization in India

Unit 4: Planning

  • Concept and importance and limitation
  • Planning process
  • Single-use and standing plans
  • Objectives, strategy, policy, procedure, method, rule, budget, and program

Unit 5: Organizing

  • Concept and importance
  • Organizing process
  • Structure of organization - functional and divisional concept
  • Formal and informal organization
  • Delegation, concept, elements, and importance
  • Decentralization: concept and importance

Unit 6: Staffing

  • Concept and importance of staffing
  • Staffing as a part of Human Resource Management
  • Staffing process
  • Recruitment and selection process
  • Training and development - concept and importance
  • Methods of training - on the job and off the job
  • Induction training, vestibule training, apprenticeship training, and internship training

Unit 7: Directing

  • Concept and importance
  • Elements of directing
  • Supervision - concept, functions of a supervisor
  • Motivation - concept, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, financial and non-financial incentives
  • Leadership - concept, styles - authoritative, democratic, and laissez-faire
  • Communication - concept, formal and informal communication
  • barriers to effective communication, how to overcome the barriers

Unit 8: Controlling

  • Concept and importance
  • Relationship between planning and controlling
  • Steps in the process of control

Part B: Business Finance and Marketing

Find below the detailed Business Finance and Marketing unit-wise topics to be covered for the class 12 HCC exam.

Unit 9: Financial Management

  • Concept role and objective of Financial Management
  • Financial decisions: investment, financing, and dividend - Meaning and factors affecting
  • Financial planning - concept and importance
  • Capital structure - concept factors determining capital structure
  • Fixed and working capital - concept and factors affecting their requirements

Unit 10: Financial Market

  • Financial markets: concept, functions, and types
  • Money market and its instruments
  • Capital market and its types (primary and secondary), methods of floatation in the primary market
  • Stock exchange - functions and trading procedure
  • Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) - objectives and functions

Unit 11: Marketing Management

  • Selling and marketing concept
  • Marketing management concept
  • Marketing functions
  • Marketing management philosophies
  • Marketing mix - concept and elements
  • Product - branding, labelling, and packaging
  • Price - concept, factors determining the price
  • Physical distribution - concept and components, channels of distribution: types, choice of channels.

Unit 12: Consumer Protection

  • Concept and importance of consumer protection
  • Consumer Protection Act 1986: Meaning of consumer Rights and responsibilities of consumers, who can file a complaint against whom? Redressal machinery, Remedies available.
  • Consumer awareness - Role of consumer organizations and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs).

HCC Accounting Syllabus for Class 12

The syllabus engages students with the relevance and applicability of accounting in real-world contexts. Students will explore the role and responsibilities of the accountant and study areas such as financial accounting and cost and management accounting. The syllabus consists of Financial Accounting in two parts, I & II.

The list of topics covered in each chapter is as follows.

Part A: Accounting for Not-for-profit Organizations, Partnership Firms, and Companies

Find below the detailed Accounting for Not-for-profit Organizations, Partnership Firms, and Companies unit-wise topics to be covered for the class 12 HCC exam.

Unit 1: Financial Statements of Not-for-profit Organizations

  • Not-for-profit organizations - Concept.
  • Receipts and Payments Account - Features and preparation.
  • Income and Expenditure Account- Features, preparation of income and expenditure account, and balance sheet from the given receipts and payments account with additional information.

Unit 2: Accounting for Partnership Firms

  • Partnership: features, partnership deed
  • Provisions of the Indian Partnership Act 1932 in the absence of partnership deed.
  • Fixed v/s fluctuating capital accounts
  • Preparation of Profit and Loss Appropriation account- a division of profit among partners, a guarantee of profits.
  • Past adjustments (relating to interest on capital, interest on drawing, salary, and profit-sharing ratio).
  • Goodwill: nature, factors affecting and methods of valuation - average profit, super profit, and capitalization.
  • Accounting for Partnership Firms - Reconstitution and Dissolution
  • Change in the Profit Sharing Ratio among the existing partners
  • Retirement and death of a partner
    • Effect of retirement/death of a partner on change in profit sharing ratio
    • Treatment of goodwill
    • Treatment for revaluation of assets and reassessment of liabilities
    • Adjustment of accumulated profits and reserves
    • Adjustment of capital accounts
    • Preparation of balance sheet
  • Preparation of loan account of the retiring partner
  • Calculation of the deceased partner's share of profit till the date of death
  • Preparation of the deceased partner's capital account and his executor's account
  • Dissolution of a partnership firm - meaning of dissolution of partnership and partnership firm, types of dissolution of a firm
  • Settlement of accounts - preparation of realization account
  • Other related accounts: partners' capital accounts and cash/bank a/c (excluding piecemeal distribution, sale to a company, and insolvency of partners).

Unit 3: Accounting for Companies

  • Accounting for Share Capital
  • Share and share capital: nature and types
  • Accounting for share capital: issue and allotment of equity shares
  • Public subscription of shares - oversubscription and under subscription of shares
  • The issue at par and a premium, call in advance and arrears (excluding interest), issue of shares for consideration other than cash.
  • Concept of Private Placement and Employee Stock Option Plan (ESOP)
  • Accounting treatment of forfeiture and re-issue of shares
  • Disclosure of share capital in the Balance Sheet of a company
  • Accounting for Debentures
  • Debentures: Issue of debentures at par, at a premium, and a discount. Issue of debentures for consideration other than cash
  • Issue of debentures with terms of redemption
  • debentures as collateral security-concept, interest on debentures
  • Writing off a discount/loss on the issue of debentures.
  • Redemption of debentures for immediate cancellation: Lump sum, the draw of lots, Creation of Debenture Redemption Reserve.
  • Conversion method

Part B: Financial Statement Analysis

Find below the detailed Finance Statement Analysis unit-wise topics to be covered for the class 12 HCC exam.

Unit 4: Analysis of Financial Statements

  • Financial statements of a company: Statement of Profit and Loss and Balance Sheet in the prescribed form with major headings and subheadings (as per Schedule III to the Companies Act, 2013).
  • Note: Exceptional items, extraordinary items, and profit (loss) from discontinued operations are excluded.
  • Financial Statement Analysis: Objectives, importance, and limitations.
  • Tools for Financial Statement Analysis: Comparative statements, common-size statements, cash flow analysis, ratio analysis.
  • Accounting Ratios: Objectives, classification, and computation.
  • Liquidity Ratios: Current ratio and Quick ratio.
  • Solvency Ratios: Debt to Equity Ratio, Total Asset to Debt Ratio, Proprietary Ratio, and Interest Coverage Ratio.
  • Activity Ratios: Inventory Turnover Ratio, Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio, Trade Payables Turnover Ratio, and Working Capital Turnover Ratio.
  • Profitability Ratios: Gross Profit Ratio, Operating Ratio, Operating Profit Ratio, Net Profit Ratio, and Return on Investment.

Unit 5: Cash Flow Statement

  • Meaning, objectives, and preparation (Indirect Method only)
  • Adjustments relating to depreciation and amortization, profit or loss on the sale of assets, including investments, dividend (both final and interim), and tax.
  • Bank overdraft and cash credit are to be treated as short-term borrowings.
  • Current investments are to be taken as Marketable securities unless otherwise specified.
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