Medical Courses in India

Medicine is one of the topmost subject chosen by students from science background after class12th, followed by Engineering. It is one of the most prestigious profession with a galaxy of specialization.

Studying medicine is a test of patience and perseverance. It requires enormous hard work and dedication of time as it is a very vast subject. It deals with human anatomy. Being a doctor provides an opportunity to serve the society. It provides both name and fame as moved up in the career.

Medicine Courses after 12th are opted by taking up the NEET (National Eligibility Cum Entrance Test) exam. Students have to attend counseling after the exam on a specific date and select the seat based on their ranking. 

 Sr. No.



 Importance of a Doctor

 Reasons to Opt for Medical Course

 Duties of a Doctor

 Major Specializations in Medicine

 Top Medical Courses in India

 Ayurveda, Homeopathy, and Unani Courses

 Veterinary Courses

 Top Colleges for Medical Courses in India

 Career Tasks and Job Profile


 Salary of a Doctor

Importance of a Doctor

  • As the proverb says “a stitch in time saves nine” likewise getting medical attention on time helps in saving a patient’s life and money. Getting first aid on spot has helped lives as well a small medical error has taken lives.

  • Doctors must help patients at times of medical emergency nearby. They should be on toes to act for them.

  • Serve the society in an affordable manner.

  • Motivate the patient to get treatment on time.

  • Doctors tend to work in an area where people are sick, negative, sad which can disturb their state of mind. They should be aware of not getting carried away with it. It is helpful if they could practice meditation to calm their mind and serve better.

Reasons to Opt for Medical Course

  • Diverse career opportunities like biomedicine, dentistry, physiotherapy, pharmacy, nursing, nutrition, veterinary medicine, Ayurveda, homeopathy etc.

  • Global uniformity in practicing medicine science knowledge.

  • Stable job with a safe career.

  • Scope in the job market for specialized subjects.

  • Respect in the society.

  • No end for learning and research.

  • Any break in the career can be restarted at any time anywhere.

  • No retirement till you practice.

  • The requirement is in every nook and corner of the world. 

Duties of a Doctor

  • Consulting and treating the patients

  • Organizing and prioritizing the workload

  • Collaborating with the staff members

  • Able to handle people of a different mindset

  • Give proper instructions for treatment

  • Maintaining records for further reference

  • Happy to serve people in stress

  • Handle difficult situation with ease

  • Good management of all duties

  • Proper maintaining and updating the records

  • Efficient and confident

  • Available on time

  • Taking responsibility

  • Presence of mind

  • Good motivator

  • Concerned about society

  • Easily approachable

  • Farsighted

  • Proactive

  • Multitasking

  • Active listener

Major Specializations in Medicine

  • General Medicine

  • General Surgery

  • Pediatrics

  • Geriatrics

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

  • Dermatology

  • Ophthalmology

  • Orthopedics

  • ENT

  • Psychiatry

  • Anesthesiology

  • Gastroenterology

  • Endocrinology

  • Nephrology

  • Urology

  • Cardiology

  • Immunology

  • Craniologist

  • Pathologist

  • Radiologist

  • Oncology

  • Orthopedic, etc.

There are further specializations in the medical field.

Top Medical Courses in India

Graduation Courses in Medicine:

List of graduate courses in the medical field are given below:


Full Form




Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery

5.5 years

(1-year internship)

Study about human anatomy, human cytology, medicine, chemistry, pharmaceutical, chemistry, drugs formulation & effect and method of surgery


Bachelor of Dental Sciences

4.5 years

(internship optional)

Taught about the denture, dental problems, and surgery in human


Bachelor of Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery

5.5 years

Treatment from diluted solutions made from natural sources such as plants, animals, and minerals for healing


Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery

5.5 years

(1-year internship)

Study of the integrated system of modern medicine and traditional Ayurveda


Bachelor of Unani Medicine

5.5 years

(1-year internship)

Based on Unani medical methods

B.V.Sc & AH

Bachelor of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry

5 years

Study of treating all types of animals either it is domesticated or wild

  • Majority of students opt for MBBS as it is on top of the trend followed by others

  • The earnings of being doctor depend on the specialization and seriousness of time invested in practice. They can work both in public and private sector hospitals.

  • After the course, the students will become doctors. They can run their own clinic or work in hospitals.

  • The requirement of doctors in rural India is high. They can work through government hospitals and serve villagers.

  • Doctors can also work in military domain hospitals serving our soldiers. They are also required during the war to treat wounded soldiers as well as in military hospitals.

  • After completing the bachelor's course they can opt for further specialization courses to serve the society much better.

  • The initial requirement is for a general physician or family physician who are formally consulted before patients are being referred to specialized doctors for higher treatment.

  • Multispecialty and super specialty hospitals have multiple high-quality doctors in the rank of MS, DM, DNB, FRCS and further specialized in the particular field. They also have the high-end sophisticated equipment to test, detect and diagnose the patient’s disease before treating with lab facilities.

Diploma and postgraduate courses in the medical field:

Various Post-Graduate courses and Diploma courses in the medical field are listed in the table below:

Sl. No.

Course Name



Diploma in Geriatric Medicine

1 year


Post Graduate Diploma in Obstetrics and Gynaecology

2 years


Post Graduate Diploma in Radio-diagnosis

2 years


Post Graduate Diploma in Medical Transcription

1 year


Post Graduate Diploma in Drug Store Management

1 year


Diploma in First Aid, Medical Care and Emergency

1 year


Diploma in First Aid

1 year


Post Graduate Diploma in Clinical Research

1 year


Post Graduate Diploma in Geriatric Medicine

1 year


Diploma in Emergency Medicine

1 year

  • There are relatively many medical courses which revolve around a doctor like counseling patients including cognitive psychology, social psychology, health psychology, child psychology, educational psychology, prior to transplant counseling, etc.

  • Biomedical is also a part of medicine related to its technical part, it is an engineering subject. It deals with maintaining the medical equipment used in the patient’s treatment.

  • Medical transcription is also a part of the healthcare sector to document patient’s treatment history, it eases further treatment of the patients. It helps the treating doctor to know the patient’s previous condition.

  • Medical coding ensures the codes are applied correctly during the medical billing process, which includes abstracting the information from documentation, assigning the appropriate codes, and creating a claim to be paid by insurance carriers.

  • The expected employment opportunities in the healthcare sector are likely to grow by approximately 29% from 2016-2026 which is faster than any occupation in other fields.

  • There are 200 courses which belong to medical and which a person is eligible to pursue after 12th, Graduation, Post graduation in India and more than 400 short-term medical courses which can be done part-time to enhance an individual medical skill.

Ayurveda, Homeopathy, and Unani Courses

  • Ayurveda, Homeopathy, and Unani are also a way of treating a patient’s illness when the treatment or not a medical emergency.

  • There are people who opt for these treatments because of side effects due to allopathy treatment.  

  • These treatments are also expensive and take more time to have its effect.


  • It is an ancient system of treating patients through natural healing. It has a major worldwide resurgence being still practiced effectively today.

  • It comprises of a well-balanced diet, certain lifestyle changes, and treatment through various herbs for treatment.

  • It is beneficial as it is a natural form with no bad effects of using.

  • Unlike allopathy, they also have a specialization of treatment.  


  • Originated in 1796 by Samuel Hahnemann

  • Taking the treatment is easy as they do not practice invasive methods, but is not a plausible system of treatment.

  • It claims that a substance that causes the symptoms of a disease in healthy people would cure similar symptoms in sick people.

  • They take time to heal but are also effective at times.


  • It originated in Greece (Unan), it aids the body’s natural processes with medicines and has no side effects.

  • The diseases are natural processes and the symptoms are the body’s reaction to them.

  • Our body has self-preservation power to maintain its balance.

  • The treatment facilitates the body to regain or strengthen the balance.

  • There are many doctors from a different field, it depends on the way they treat where patients revisit them to continue treatment.

  • Proficiency of the doctors makes them popular, not the degree. 

Veterinary Courses

  • It is an important part of medicine related to treating animals. The man feeds on animals in his everyday life for milk and meat, so treating animals adversely protects human health.

  • As man tend to get treatment against disease equally animal health also important.

  • A doctor who treats the animal is called a veterinarian who is capable of treating all animals. The most probable animals getting treated are dogs, cats, cows, and buffaloes. Other animals do get treatment rarely.

  • Learning about animals and treating them is difficult as a doctor has to diagnose himself the illness of animals.

  • Animals are treated when they are captivated. Mostly they are treated and returned back to the place from where they were captured. They also need surgery at times done by a veterinarian.

  • It is important to treat animals and birds as man is so sensitive to borne disease from them.

  • Veterinarians are usually animal lovers. They are required to care for animals.

  • People passionate about their pet animals require the bad need of a veterinarian nearby to take care of their pet.

Different Veterinary Courses

List of various veterinary courses is given below: 

Sl. No

Veterinary Bachelor Courses


Bachelor of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry (B.V.Sc & AH) – 5 years


BV. Sc. in Animal Genetics and Breeding


BV. Sc. in Animal Production & Management


BV. Sc. in Veterinary Surgery & Radiology


BV. Sc. in Veterinary Medicine, Public Health & Hygiene


Sl. No

Veterinary Master Courses


Master of Veterinary Science (M.V.Sc) – 3 years


MV. Sc in Veterinary Medicine


MV. Sc in Veterinary Pharmacology & Toxicology


MV. Sc in Veterinary Surgery & Radiology


Sl. No

Veterinary Doctoral Courses


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Veterinary Medicine


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Veterinary Pathology


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Veterinary Pharmacology & Toxicology

Top 5 Veterinary college in India


Name of Veterinary Colleges


Bombay Veterinary College, Mumbai


Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Andhra Pradesh


Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Haryana


Faculty of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, Jharkhand


Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Uttar Pradesh

Importance of Veterinarian

  • To treat animals humanely

  • Make them feel better

  • Care for animal’s health

  • Good health of animal increases profit

  • Maintain a balance of species other than man

  • Less in numbers and not easily available

  • Avoid subtherapeutic doses of treatment

  • Importance of Veterinarians in rural areas: 
    • Villages are the places where we find veterinarians to treat the domestic animals like hen, cow, buffalo, goat etc.

    • Dairy farming and animal husbandry are an important source of income for villagers. Milk and meat products are a source of high-quality protein.

    • To earn more business, people tend to give antibiotics to animals which are harmful. In turn, the consumer gets the effect of it and is of concern globally.

    • Maintaining ethics as a veterinarian is important as they deal with animals.

    • Veterinarians are employed in the zoo to treat diseases in animals and birds. In villages, the veterinarian does take care of domestic animal’s health and are appointed by the government.

Veterinarian Tasks

  • Detect and determine health, injury, or illnesses by examining animals.

  • Counsel pet owners around treatment and diagnosis, and perform authorization when required.

  • Administer vaccinations to animals.

  • Collect samples from animals for testing pathogens or diseases.

  • Provide immediate treatment

  • Care for animals including diagnosis, prescriptions, and/or advice and behavior changes

  • Very much required to love and be passionate to serve animals and are recognized globally

Drawbacks of Veterinarian

  • Costly to set up and maintain veterinary clinic

  • Need to travel a lot to treat animals in emergency

  • They encounter animals suffer from neglect and abuse

  • Need to struggle with obligations from people having sick pets, and cannot afford to pay for its care.

  • Has to deal with emotions of his own and provide advice to grieving pet owners

  • Treating animals is a physically demanding job.

  • They run the risk of personal injury and damage to expensive medical equipment during treatment.

  • Need to make animals appropriately unconscious at times before treating

  • Veterinarian jobs are in high demand and are opted very less.  

Top Colleges for Medical Courses in India

Career Tasks and Job Profile

Basic Tasks of Physicians

  • Checkups

  • Testing

  • Diagnosis

  • Prescription

  • Treatment

  • Followup

  • Counseling

  • Behavior modification

  • Referring to specialized doctors.

  • Minor and major surgery etc.

Occupational area of doctor is numerous and assistance of others related to the healthcare industry is required for proper functioning of the system.

Other Job Profiles

  • Public health worker

  • Health journalist

  • Medical teacher

  • Clinical Forensic Medical Examiner

  • Crowd Doctor

  • Medical Photographer

  • Medical/ Pharmaceutical Researcher

  • Sports and Exercise Medicine

  • Volunteer Work

  • Medical Sales Representative

  • Medical Legal Advisor

  • Occupational Physician

  • Transplant Coordinator

  • Radiology/Diagnostic Imaging Director

  • Medical director

  • CEO for hospital

  • Management director

  • Quality manager

  • NABH/NABL assessor

  • Medical research scientist

  • Medical officer

  • Medical Reviewer

As the doctors reach higher up in their positions along with treating patients they tend to participate in other hospital activities like quality management, hospital administration, head of various committees in the hospital, etc.

Other Careers in the Healthcare Sector

  • Genetic counselor

  • Physiotherapist

  • Speech-language pathologist

  • Occupational therapist

  • Audiologist

  • OT nursing

Salary of a Doctor

It varies from thousands to lakhs depending on their position and area of interest in the field. It takes time, effort, interest, devotion and money to excel as well as to remain in the field of Medicine.

Day to day there are new medicines entering the market for new diseases.

Research in the field of medicine has been happening since time immemorial and still, it continues. In spite of various inventions and discoveries every day the need to do more is never-ending.


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