What is Engineering?

“Engineering is quite different from science. Scientists try to understand nature. Engineers try to make things that do not exist in nature.”- Fung et al.

Engineering refers to the branch of technology and science which is related to the designing, building, and usage of machines, engines, and structures. It comes from the Latin word “Ingenium”, which means "cleverness" or “Ingeniare”, which means "to contrive or devise". It is said that it is the first profession of the human world since the first thing the early man did as a sign of civilization was to build stuff to make life easier. Today, we can say with certainty that it is the most important profession to keep our world revolving. Every need for modern-day mankind revolves around using tools that have been meticulously engineered, no matter how small they may seem.

Engineering can relate to any field, be it science, art, or commerce. It applies anywhere there are structures to be built, be it a canvas or a rocket engine. Hence, engineering is a very interdisciplinary subject.

Mainstream Engineering has topics such as chemical engineering, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, computer engineering, electrical engineering, and aerospace engineering. There is also business engineering, which deals with the relationship between IT systems, professional engineering, change management, and business administration. Engineering management or "Management engineering" is a special field of management related to engineering practice or the engineering industry. The demand for managers with an understanding of engineering has resulted in the development of special engineering management degrees that develop the skills and knowledge needed for these roles. Other than that there are branches such as marine engineering, biotechnological engineering, and genetic engineering, which are subjects that have shown an entirely new world to us.

B.E is an acronym for Bachelor of Engineering. Considered as a professional degree program having a duration of 4 years that focuses on scientific theory, concepts, and experiments.

Bachelor of engineering comes with different branches like

  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Electrical Engineering
  • Civil Engineering
  • Computer Science Engineering
  • Electronics & Communication Engineering
  • Mechatronics Engineering
  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Ceramic Engineering
  • Industrial Engineering
  • System Engineering

From Archimedes to Leonardo Da Vinci and Nikola Tesla to the new household name Elon Musk, engineers are shaping the world one step at a time. Engineers are considered as a unique spectrum of people.

Top Engineering Disciplines
Mechanical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Robotics Engineering
Thermal Engineering Automotive Engineering Electronics and Communication Engineering
Civil Engineering Genetic Engineering Systems Engineering
Software Engineering Marine Engineering Instrumentation Engineering
Chemical Engineering Petroleum Engineering Geotechnical Engineering

Engineering Eligibility Criteria


Eligibility criteria for admission into pursuing Bachelor of Engineering course is that students must have passed XII examination from any recognized board with Chemistry/Mathematics/Physics as the primary subjects, with minimum aggregate marks of 50 percent.

Post Graduation:

Candidates willing to pursue an MTech degree in engineering should have completed their Bachelor in a related discipline with a minimum of 50% aggregate marks.

Engineering Admission Process


For admissions to under-graduation courses, candidates must go through a rigorous process of clearing national-level and state-level entrance tests for obtaining admission into different colleges/universities/institutes.

Entrance Exams are:

  • JEE Main
  • JEE Advanced
  • ComedK
  • KCET


Fees of B.Tech Engineering courses vary institute-wise and branch opted.


For admissions to ME/M. Tech courses in the top engineering colleges in India aspirants must clear the GATE examination. However, some colleges/universities/institutes have their separate entrance exams followed by personal interview and counseling for the admission process.

GATE is an All-India examination conducted jointly by the Indian Institute of Science (IISc). It is an online test based on multiple-choice questions divided into three sections, namely General Aptitude, Engineering Mathematics, and the speciality subject.

Fees of M.Tech Engineering course vary institute-wise and specialization chosen by the student.

Civil Engineering

It is a discipline of engineering sciences related to designing, constructing, and maintaining dams, buildings, bridges, highways, tunnels, and other structures by applying mathematical equations, physical laws, and mechanics theories. Civil Engineers use the available resources like workforce, expertise, materials, etc. to complete the project in the given time, fulfilling the various expenditure, time, environmental issues, and physical hazards of the project. Civil Engineering syllabus and structure may vary from college to college as per their requirements.

There are various specialization in civil engineering that candidates may choose from:-

  • Construction Engineering
  • Coastal and Ocean Engineering
  • Geotechnical Engineering
  • Fire protection engineering
  • Structural Engineering
  • General Engineering

Civil Engineering is regarded as one of the profitable career fields. It provides new engineers to earn a good living, so civil engineering jobs give fruitful career prospects. Opportunities are required to be particularly productive in renewable energy and the development and maintenance of water and waste treatment systems.

Various civil engineering jobs in India are as follows: -

  • Assistant Engineer
  • Project Manager
  • Senior Engineer
  • Division Leader
  • Supervisory Engineer
  • City Engineer

Check more details about Civil Engineering

Electronics and Communication Engineering

Electronics and communications engineering utilize active electrical components such as semiconductor devices, transistors, and diodes, etc. to design electronic circuits, devices, integrated circuits, and their systems.

Application Of Electronics and Communication includes:-

  • Digital telecommunication
  • Power electronics
  • Manufacturing companies
  • Aerospace manufacturing companies
  • Satellite and mobile communication
  • Remote Sensing
  • Electrocardiograph
  • Microwave Communication

India considered the upcoming manufacturing hub of consumer electronics products. In the era of deployment of 5G, the Electronics and Communications Engineering is one of the most promising branches of engineering study.

A recent research study predicted jobs for electronics and communication engineers would grow by 7% from 2016 to 2026, and employment in the ECE sector will be amplified significantly in the last few years.

Companies for Electronics and Communication Engineering Branch Include:

  • Texas Instruments
  • Intel
  • Commercial & Industrial Security Corporation (CISCO)
  • International Business Machines (IBM)
  • Samsung Electronics
  • Sony
  • Toshiba
  • Philips Semiconductors
  • Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL)

Check more details about Electronics and Communication Engineering

Mechatronics Engineering

A Multi-disciplinary Branch of Engineering that mainly focuses on both Electric and Mechanical engineering and includes a combination of other engineering streams like robotics, electronics, computer, telecommunications, system, control, and product engineering.

Most of the engineering-oriented business and industrial sectors are now paying attention to Mechatronics Engineering courses; it has several applications in many areas not only limited to large global enterprises but also to smaller innovative companies that are hiring Mechatronics Engineers as it inclines more towards advanced technologies.

One of the most excellent applications of Mechatronics is the development of the Mars Rover crafted by NASA, which was used to collect samples and photographs from the Mars surface.

Agricultural Engineering

Agricultural engineering combines the disciplines and principles of mechanical, civil, electrical, food science, and chemical engineering with a knowledge of agricultural principles and technological principles. A vital goal of this discipline is to improve the efficacy and sustainability of farming practices.

Duties of Agricultural Engineers

Agricultural engineers typically do the following:

  • Using Computer software to design equipment, systems, or structures
  • Involved in modifying environmental factors that affect animal or crop production, such as airflow in a barn or runoff patterns on a field
  • Test equipment to ensure its safety and reliability
  • Oversee construction and production operations
  • Plan and working together with clients, contractors, consultants, and other engineers to ensure effective and desirable outcomes

Software Engineering

Software engineering is an engineering branch combining the development of software products through the adoption of well-defined scientific methods principles and procedures. The resultants of software engineering are an adequate and reliable software product. It is the practical application of scientific knowledge to the creative design and building of computer programs.

Software Engineers Duties

Following are the duties of a software engineer:

  • Develop a well-optimized and effective source code for the latest software applications
  • Produce various software instruments and amalgamate them to a fully functional software system
  • Maintain and test software to ensure that it is operating properly

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Mechanical Engineering

It is the branch of engineering concerned with the designing, manufacturing, installing, and operation of engines and machines involving various manufacturing processes. It is mainly concerned with forces and motion. Mentioned below are various U.G., P.G., Diploma, and certification courses offered for the candidates.

Different areas of employment for Mechanical Engineering are:

  • Electronics
  • Automobile
  • Sales
  • Chemical
  • Steel Plants
  • Marketing
  • Power Plants
  • Oil Exploration and Refining
  • Agricultural
  • Aeronautical
  • Space Research Organisation

The average mechanical engineer salary in India is approximately Rs. 16,856 per month. The starting mechanical engineer salary varies from Rs. 4 lakh to Rs. 20 lakh per annum.

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Genetic Engineering

Genetic Engineering is the discipline of study that includes genetics and biotechnology methods of intersecting and joining together the genetic material and particularly DNA. Also involves the introduction of the modified genome into an organism to generate the desired features in an organism.

What is Genetic Engineering Used For?

It is because of the significant advantages that are rendered by genetic engineering, that is ṣincreased crop yields, decreased costs for food or drug production, reduced need for harmful fertilizers, enhanced nutrient production and food quality, resistance to pests and disease, and medical benefits to the world's increasing population. Several animals have also been genetically engineered to increase yield and decrease susceptibility to disease are the live genetic engineering examples.

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Biomedical Engineering

Biomedical Engineering centers on the advancements that improve human health and health care at each level. There are multiple subdisciplines within biomedical engineering, including medical imaging, clinical engineering, orthopaedic implants biomedical signal processing, design, and expansion of various medical devices, tissue, and stem cell engineering. Biomedical Engineering innovations examples are artificial limbs, prosthetics, imaging machines, and several other medical devices. Biomedical Engineer assesses the security, efficiency, and effectiveness of biomedical equipment.

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Production Engineering

Production engineering involves designing, optimal use of resources, analyzing ProductionProduction, planning, and employing cost-effective techniques into creating a product. It uses the principles of engineering, technology, manufacturing, and management science to develop safe and efficient processes for transforming raw materials into finished items.

The national average salary for a Production Engineer is ₹4,23,529 in India.

The initial salary on completing graduation will vary from 15,000 to 30,000 per month.

Salary offered for Mtech graduates ranges between 1,50,000 to 5,50,000 lakhs per annum.

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Industrial Engineering

Industrial engineering makes a study to unlock the key to finding answers to many vital problems in manufacturing, distribution of goods and services, health care, utilities, transportation, entertainment, and the environment. Industrial engineers play a significant role in designing and implementing changes to increase quality, safety, and productivity.

Industrial Engineering Course Suitability:-

  • Interested in work in the production & manufacturing environments
  • Able to analyze the ongoing system & improve the system
  • Ability to increase the productivity of the system in minimum time in a most efficient way
  • Analytical Aptitude

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Automobile Engineering

Automobile Engineering or Automotive Engineering definition states that it is a division of vehicle engineering which comprises components of electronic, mechanical, electrical, software, and safety engineering being applied to the manufacture, design, and operation of automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, and buses and their corresponding engineering subsystems. The main areas of application are in car design, operations involving the ProductionProduction of cars, designing engines, and fuel management.

Chemical Engineering

Chemical Engineering is the most popular branch of engineering for the aspirants to pursue in India. B. Tech in Chemical Engineering is a four-year undergraduate program which combines the knowledge of chemistry, physics, biology, mathematics microbiology, biochemistry, along with Engineering for the ProductionProduction of chemicals and its by-products.

 Chemical Engineering is applied in the manufacture of a wide variety of products which include inorganic and organic industrial chemicals, ceramics, agrochemicals plastics and elastomers, fuels and petrochemicals, explosives, detergents and detergent products, fragrances and flavours, additives, dietary supplements, and pharmaceuticals.

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Petroleum Engineering

Petrochemical Engineering is all about designing and creating processes to extract oil and gas from the reservoirs below the earth's surface. Petroleum Engineering has a proper scope in the country as India is rich in minerals and natural gases. The salary packages offered to Petrochemical Engineers varies between INR 3, 60,000 to INR 4, 80,000 in India. However, abroad, the demand for petroleum engineers is at an all-time high and is a lucrative pay package.

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System Engineering

Systems engineering means the use of a systematic and disciplined approach for the design, realization, technical management, operations, and retirement of a system.

A "system" defined as a collection of different elements that together produce results not obtainable by the elements alone.

The foundation for the successful development of complication systems is that system engineering uses a structured yet flexible approach.

Here's a list of critical skills required by system engineer:-

  • Problem Solving
  • Troubleshooting
  • Emotional Intelligence
  • Persuading Others
  • Entrepreneurial Thinking
  • Computer Skills

System Engineer Salary in India

  • System engineer salary in India ranges between 2,00,000-8,00,000 per annum.
  • Senior systems engineer salary ranges between 5,00,000-9,00,000 per annum.
  • Infosys System Engineer Salary makes around 20,000-50,000 per month

Check more details about System Engineering


  1. What is system engineer vs software engineer?

    Systems engineers perform the same work as software engineers, and also develop software components. However, system engineering involves specifying, maintaining, and supporting technical infrastructure.

  2. What is the difference between Industrial and Mechanical engineering?

    Industrial engineering combines business with engineering principles to improve profitability, while mechanical engineering focuses on designing and building mechanical devices that solve problems.

  3. What is the suitability of the Production Engineering course?

    Students with a keen interest in designing and building along with excellent knowledge in mathematics and information technology can make a successful career in production engineering.

  4. Is being an agriculture engineer a good career option?

    In recent years we all have realized how important the agriculture sector is. Agriculture is a vast and diversified field, offering numerous career options; this is because India is a significant producer and exporter of various cash crops.

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